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Filozofia (Philosophy)
|
2014
|
tom 69
|
nr 8
687 – 696
EN
Many commentators think that Hobbes was committed to an instrumental view of rationality which foreshadows that of David Hume. The Humean conception of instrumental rationality is a conjunction of the following two claims: (a) no preferences or desires can properly be said to be irrational in themselves, and (b) the role of reason or rationality can be only confined to informing the agent with true beliefs about the world, and revealing the most effective means that could satisfy the agent’s current ends whatever they happen to be. In this paper, the author argues that, unlike what many people think, a careful reading of Hobbes shows that he was committed to neither of these claims.
EN
The objective of this study was to search for polymorphisms and gene regulatory sequences in the 5' flanking region of the sheep insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) gene. PCR-SSCP analysis of the 5' flanking region revealed three banding patterns. Family study indicated that these patterns in mixed breed sheep corresponded with three genotypes (with their frequencies in parentheses) AA (0.70), AB (0.25), and BB (0.05), which arose from a one-locus, two allele (A, B) polymorphism. Genotypic frequencies in 22 purebred Polypay sheep were AA (0.77) and AB (0.23). Calculated frequency of the A allele in Polypays was 0.89. No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected in this study. Fragments amplified using DNA from homozygous individuals were sequenced and aligned next to each other. A T to C transition and a G to C transversion were found at positions 179 and 181, respectively, of the amplified PCR product, resulting in recognition sites for Bsp143II and HaeI. Analysis of a fragment of 2,162 base pairs upstream of Exon 1, assembled from sheep ESTs and sequence of our amplified PCR products, revealed a promoter sequence approximately 100 bp downstream of the polymorphic sites. The assembled DNA fragment shared 70% sequence homology between sheep and human. These results suggest that sequence of the 5' flanking region of IGF-I gene and location of the IGF-I promoters are similar in human and sheep.
EN
The ovine skeletal-muscle-specific calpain gene (p94), which is known also as the n-calpain or calpain 3 gene (CAPN3), was screened with primers. Selection of the PCR primers was based on the ovine cDNA sequence (GenBank accession No. AF087570). After sequence alignment between the ovine and human (AY902237) genes, exon and intron boundaries were determined. Polymorphisms were observed in the intron region for the CAPN31112 and CAPN31213 segments, and the sequences for these segments were submitted to the GenBank (AF309635 and AY102617, respectively). Body weight was recorded at birth, weaning and post-weaning. Calpain 3 genotypes of the CAPN31112 segment were associated with birth weight (P < 0.01), and a dominant gene effect was observed. Breeding group, birth type, and rearing type were significantly associated with weight traits. Allele frequencies were similar in purebred and crossbred animals.
EN
The ovine skeletal-muscle-specific calpain gene (p94), which is known also as the n-calpain or calpain 3 gene (CAPN3), was screened with primers. Selection of the PCR primers was based on the ovine cDNA sequence (GenBank accession No. AF087570). After sequence alignment between the ovine and human (AY902237) genes, exon and intron boundaries were determined. Polymorphisms were observed in the intron region for the CAPN31112 and CAPN31213 segments, and the sequences for these segments were submitted to the GenBank (AF309635 and AY102617, respectively). Body weight was recorded at birth, weaning and post-weaning. Calpain 3 genotypes of the CAPN31112 segment were associated with birth weight (P < 0.01), and a dominant gene effect was observed. Breeding group, birth type, and rearing type were significantly associated with weight traits. Allele frequencies were similar in purebred and crossbred animals.
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