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Content available remote Modely řečové produkce v současné psycholingvistice
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The purpose of this article is to introduce three psycholinguistic models of speech production: the Levelt Model, the Interactive Activation Model of G. Dell and the Independent Network Model of A. Caramazza. The architecture of the models and the processes they assume are described and compared. The models differ both in the data on which their authors base their claims, and also in some crucial assumptions like succession of activation of the three basic networks of speech production (semantic, grammatical and phonological), the mechanisms of selection of the individual units within these networks and the presence or absence of feedback between them, etc.
EN
Connections between the two disciplines mentioned are considered from both a personal and a general point of view.. The personal perspective concerns the authoress' participation in a Psycholinguistic Group led by Professor Ida Kurcz, which dealt with the development of knowledge about theories and methodologies, and the results of research on language, as well as interdisciplinary studies on aphasia. The general perspective refers to the proposal to present some common interests in language of healthy people and neurological patients. At the same time, there was a curiosity to point out the primary steps in the development of observations and interpretations of the brain mechanisms of aphasia (from Egyptian papyrus to our times), and to talk about cooperation among neurologists, linguists, psycholinguists and neuropsychologists, who are interested in language and all its functions.
EN
One of the most obvious symptoms of schizophrenia is the blurred communication, the abnormal speech and thinking. This review tries to look over the literature in this topic about clinical findings, neuropsychological studies, researches with brain imaging techniques, and so on. There are several questions like definition and nature of this symptom, functional background of it or the methods of studies used. However, we are getting closer to answers, there are several issues unexplained. As a whole, the phenomenon of language dysfunction or thought disorder in schizophrenia is an interdisciplinary, challenging and inspirative issue, which could give new perspectives to understand not only schizophrenia itself, but the human mind as well.
EN
Gender-related differences have long been a matter of interest for various disciplines, including linguistics, and specifically psycholinguistics, too. Verbal discrepancies observed in early infancy can also be attested in adults, with respect to language use, and to temporal and other characteristics of speech. The present paper seeks to find an answer to the question of whether differences between male and female speech, revealing hidden strategies of speech planning, can be detected in the disfluencies of spontaneous utterances. Our hypothesis was that men and women apply diverse strategies, of course not consciously, in order to resolve disharmonies based on the paradox of speech planning and implementation, revealed at the surface by preferences towards dissimilar types of disfluencies. In order to support that hypothesis, we have recorded the spontaneous speech of 18 adult speakers with the help of task-oriented dialogues. The results have born out our hypothesis: we have found differences both in the number of disfluencies (roughly twice as many were observed in the speech of male subjects than in that of female ones) and in their preferred types, a fact that was also corroborated by statistical analysis.
EN
The paper introduces the methodology of the associative experiment, one of the most successful psycholinguistic research tools developed to date. Based on her experience and the work of foreign authors, the author describes all aspects that ensure or, on the contrary, jeopardize the validity of the associative experiment. The study deals with the characteristics of the steps preceding the associative experiment itself (sample selection of respondents, compilation of the association questionnaire, etc.), characterizes the course of the experiment and various factors affecting it. It also points out specific errors that a person conducting the experiment may make in the associative experiment process. The work contains methodological recommendations concerning the systematisation of the results of the associative experiment and their analysis.
EN
Speech production involves a series of processes that operate covertly and cannot be directly accessed. Only their output, speech itself, can be analysed. The collection and investigation of instances of disfluency is an important area of psycholinguistic research since such disharmonic phenomena may yield information concerning the operations that take place in the background: getting to know the causes and courses of speakers committing errors brings us closer to understanding the characteristics of normal processes. In the present study, the authors analyse 1760 segmental-level errors (379 perseverations, 594 anticipations, 401 metatheses, and 386 simple slips of the tongue) and try to find out which level of speech planning is responsible for faulty implementation is each case. What causes errors that can be explained in several different ways? Two assumptions are known. According to one of these, errors can be traced back to planning operations at the phonological level, that is, they precede phonetic planning that is then organised in terms of the faulty phonological pattern. In the other view, impeccable phonological operations are followed by defective phonetic planning that is responsible for the actual errors; in this case, then, we have to do with a simple articulatory implementation problem. The results of the present study confirm the view that segmental-level errors are committed in the phonetic, rather than phonological, planning process. This is connected to the fact that articulatory implementation is the most vulnerable phase of speech production. This may be due to the fact that the least amount of attention is devoted to articulation, this being the most automatic and most well-rehearsed part of the whole process. Further investigations are required to determine the kind of interaction that these operations maintain with the other levels of speech production planning while the individual disfluency phenomena come into being.
EN
In Hungarian, as in other languages, simple verbs are often replaced by analytical constructions using a deverbal noun derived from a simple verb and a semantically depleted 'delexical' verb. Traditional language cultivation holds that such constructions are alien to the spirit of the language: they come from other languages through translation. It is also claimed that analytical constructions are more difficult to comprehend than simple verbs, and are only used by people who are lazy to think and talk straight. However, the Handbook of Language Cultivation concedes that some analytical constructions are acceptable, some have no single-verb alternatives, and some 'sound' downright good. From a descriptive point of view we wish to raise two related questions. Can the opinions described above be supported by more than subjective judgement? Can it be shown by quantitative analysis that translations, indeed, are responsible for the infiltration of analytical constructions? Second, can it be supported by psycholinguistic evidence that the constructions ostracized by purists do indeed interfere with comprehension, while those labelled as acceptable or recommended do not? What is the cause of the proliferation of analytical constructions in certain texts and situations, apart from the traditional explanation that people are lazy to talk straight? The paper reports on two studies. The first study does not find evidence that translated texts contain more analytical constructions than original Hungarian texts. The second study, aimed at exploring the processing of analytical constructions vs. simple verbs finds that analytical constructions marked as unacceptable by language cultivation are indeed more difficult to process than simple verbs.
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The paper concentrates on psycholinguistic processes which occur while decoding speech from the acoustic signal to a complete recognition of the word. The acoustic signal reaching the hearer fails to reveal any clear-cut phonemic boundaries or invariability, therefore different perception models refer to different sources in speech categorization. The reason for the fact that phonemic categories are so strongly blurred in the signal is coarticulation, which, despite its disruptive effect on the structure of the signal, appears to be crucial in increasing the effectiveness of speech recognition. Having processed the signal into distinct speech categories, the hearer searches for an appropriate lexeme in their lexicon. The process appears to rely strongly on two aspects; competition and neighbourhood. Lexemes congruent with the incoming speech signal are activated in parallel and compete for recognition. Lexemes in dense neighbourhood are activated differently from lexemes in sparse neighbourhood. In its final parts, the article discusses how the ability to write and read influences the phonological representation of words.
EN
The paper deals with the issue of computational psycholinguistic analysis (CPA) and its experimental application in basic psychological and pedagogical assessment. CPA is a new method which may potentially provide interesting, psychologically relevant information about the author of a particular text, regardless of the text’s factual (semantic) content and without the need to obtain additional materials. As part of our QPA-FPT research we studied the link between the linguistic form of a text by Czech college students and their personality characteristics obtained from a psychodiagnostic test battery. The article also discusses the basis of the method, opportunities for practical application and potential use within psychological and pedagogical disciplines.
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Content available remote Psycholingvistika a čeština: některá slibná témata
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EN
Psycholinguistic research has not received much attention in the Czech linguistic community. However, psycholinguistic methods could contribute to research in areas that have been traditionally strong in Czech linguistics, such as the study of information structure (topic-focus articulation). Specific properties of Czech, such as its rich morphological system with many homonymous affixes, also provide interesting opportunities for research. The article demonstrates some methods used in research on word identification in adults and sentence processing in adults and children. It shows how these methods could be employed to provide theoretically relevant and new data about Czech.
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