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XX
Przedstawiono historię ŁUKOIL. Omówiono strukturę koncernu. Na koniec przybliżono jego Program Restrukturyzacyjny.
EN
Presented history of ŁUKOIL. Discussed structure of this concern. Finally described Restructuring Programme of ŁUKOIL. (MP)
XX
Na ile niestabilne i bijące rekordy wszech czasów ceny ropy naftowej wpłynęły na kłopoty amerykańskich banków? I czy stały za wzrostami cen kraje OPEC od dawna skłócone z Ameryką – największym konsumentem paliw kopalnych? Wzrastające ceny ropy naftowej doprowadziły do niewypłacalności część amerykańskiego społeczeństwa. Społeczeństwa przyzwyczajonego do wygody i rozrzutności. Obywateli kraju, w którym nawet po gazetę do kiosku jedzie się spalającym litry benzyny samochodem. (abstrakt oryginalny)
XX
Przedstawiono opinie różnych autorów na temat wpływu wykorzystania produkcji roślinnej na cele energetyczne na rynek żywności w Polsce. Stwierdzono, że badania na ten temat mają charakter fragmentaryczny, a opinie są często subiektywne. Wskazano na celowość wieloaspektowej oceny i uwzględnienia krajowych bilansów ziemiopłodów. Poglądy dotyczące wpływu produkcji roślinnej na cele energetyczne na rynek żywności zmieniają się pod wpływem procesów globalnych i uwarunkowań makroekonomicznych. (abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
The impact of energy crop production on the food market in Poland needs to be comprehensively assessed and the analysis should include: the present level of efficiency per 1 ha. structure of crop production and balance sheets of agricultural crops as well as natural and organizational-economic conditions. The paper deals with statistical data of the Central Statistical Office (GUS), the research results of the Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics - National Research Institute (IERiGŻ-PTB), the views of many authors presented in the scientific contributions and the results of the analyses of the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation-State Research Institute (IUNG-PIB). It was found that the evaluation of the impact of energy crop production on food market should cover the following stages of the process of energy production from renewable resources. In order to cover the demand for food and biofuels in Poland it is essential to moderately intensify crop production and utilize land resources in a rational way. The use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) to produce energy may lessen the effect of this crop production course on the food supply and prices. However, thorough representative studies have to be carried out in this area. (original abstract)
XX
W artykule przedstawiono emisję gazów cieplarnianych do atmosfery z systemu ropy naftowej w Polsce. Termin system naftowy oznacza całość procesów technologicznych związanych z wydobyciem, transportem i magazynowaniem ropy naftowej, jej przetworzeniem na paliwa i inne produkty oraz procesy dystrybucji hurtowej i detalicznej. Inwentaryzacja emisji nie obejmuje zjawisk i procesów produkcji energii na potrzeby wewnętrzne, ani także emisji z tytułu spalania w silnikach paliw uzyskanych w procesach przerobu ropy naftowej.
XX
W raporcie przedstawiono cele i zadania programu rozwoju sektora naftowego, stan i potrzeby inwestycyjne, założenia systemu ekonomiczno-finansowego.
XX
Artykuł porusza problem reorganizacji sektora naftowego w Polsce.
XX
Artykuł porusza problem przyspieszenia prywatyzacji sektora naftowego oraz fuzji Centrali Produktów Naftowych SA i Petrochemii Płock SA.
XX
W ubiegłym roku w kraju przerobiono łącznie prawie 16 mln ton ropy naftowej, to jest o 1,1 mln ton (7,4 proc.) więcej niż w 1997 r. Produkcja krajowa dwóch podstawowych grup paliw (benzyny i oleje napędowe) wyniosła prawie 10 mln ton i była większa o 6,4 proc. niż w roku poprzednim.
EN
Since the mid-1990s, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the 'hopeless continent' ("Economist") has surprised many as it has become one of the fastest growing regions in the world. This change of economic fortunes was driven by the following mixture of factors: macroeconomic stability (including diminished debt and inflation levels), strengthened institutions, sound economic policies (including openness to trade) and a favourable international environment (including the emergence of Asia, and China in particular) which allowed for the African commodity boom. The levels of economic growth have been rising in SSA since the mid-90s with the most significant take-off occurring since 2001. While real GDP growth for SSA countries averaged 6% between 2004 and 2012, it amounted, on average, to 8% for the oil-producing countries of the region. The latter are a heterogeneous group of countries with different oil endowments and oil-dependence levels. This group is composed of Angola, Cameroon, Chad, the Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Nigeria. Nigeria has the largest oil reserves in SSA amounting to around 73% of the total. Angola is the continent's largest producer, with around 44% of the entire continent's production, followed by Nigeria with around 36%. Economic growth for oil-producing countries in SSA has relied on the oil sector and diversification of their economies has been limited. In general, their non-oil sectors are weak and these countries remain vulnerable to external shocks, including volatile oil prices. However, as compared to the previous boom-bust cycles of the 1970s oil booms, growth during the current takeoff period has remained resilient, also due to strengthened macroeconomic balances. Moreover, growing focus on structural transformation and development of non-oil sectors is expected to bring longer-term growth opportunities and this is especially visible in Angola, Gabon, and Nigeria. To maintain current levels of growth and to assure its sustained impact on poverty reduction and incomes, the role of non-oil sectors in the economy should be strengthened. It is important to focus on job creation, raising productivity and investment in human capital. The aim of the paper is to give an overview of recent economic growth trends and growth drivers in the oil-producing countries of SSA as well as impact of growth on poverty and social outcomes. (original abstract)
EN
The efficiency of risk management software depends on the quality of risk assessment at the stage of such system development. The number of potential variables (factors) in many risk management software applications is large. Another important aspect is that the scientists and engineers face to challenge which risk factors are significant or what the acceptable range of its values is at the initial stage of the risk controlling system development. The paper suggests a way to determine the significant specific risk factors of domestic oil and gas production enterprises' activity and to screen out the insignificant factors. In order to achieve these goals, the simulation analysis was conducted by the aid of 2-level full factorial experiment. Empirical data-processing operation was carried out through the instrumentality of mathematical statistics methods. It has been suggested to exclude (screen) at the stage of model construction eleven risk factors (of thirty-five ones identified), which impact on the financial and economical state of analyzed companies is insignificant (less than 5%). (original abstract)
11
Content available remote Prospects of Oil Production in the Russian Arctic: Technological Aspect
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EN
Purpose: The purpose of the article is determining the prospects of oil production in the Arctic from technological point of view. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses qualitative analysis in order to gain insights into the realistic prospects and the key aspects of the development of the Arctic shelf. The methods of strategic analysis were adopted to determine the main strategic directions of technological development of offshore projects. Reliability and validity of the obtained results are established due to the usage of modern legal and regulatory framework and data of the "Gazprom" and "RosNeft" oil companies. Findings: The study offers an approach to investigation of problem of Arctic oil and gas projects' technological support. This paper provides the strategies of technological aspect's future development and analyses opportunities of their implementation in current circumstances. Research limitations/implications: The relevance of this research is connected with increasing interest in the extraction of mineral resources in Russian Arctic. Practical implications: The findings of this study have a number of important implications for future practice within determination of the realistic prospects for development of Russian Arctic shelf. Originality/value: The problem of the development of offshore oil and gas Arctic projects has risen recently on a world scale due to the depletion of traditional overland oil and gas fields. This study has provided a deeper insight into strategic directions of providing the Russian offshore projects with required technologies. The possible ways were divided into three strategies: import-oriented strategy, cooperation strategy and intra-oriented substitution strategy. (original abstract)
XX
W artykule przedstawiono iracki sektor naftowy. Według danych PFC Energy, produkcja ropy w Iraku spada od 4 do 8 proc. rocznie. W kolejnych latach prawdopodobnie jeszcze się obniży. Zapobiec temu może finansowa współpraca z międzynarodowymi spółkami naftowymi.
XX
Szczegółowo omówiono pojęcie Świata Arabskiego, który obejmuję grupę państw zróżnicowanych pod względem społecznym, ekonomicznym i politycznym, ale mających wspólną religię, język i historię. Przedstawiono dane dotyczące powierzchni i ludności Świata Arabskiego. Opisano jego gospodarczy podział oraz kierunki i perspektywy rozwoju społeczno-gospodarczego.
EN
Presented material implies that the Arab World is diversified considering the environmental factors, human potential, financial capabilities, social and economic development level, political systems and economic development concepts. It is a monolith from the point of view of nationality, religion, language, culture and, to some extent, history. The above mentioned elements should constitute a strong foundation, on which it would be possible to build a strong and effective economic co-operation. However, as can be seen, it is a divided and disturbed world. In our opinion, the main obstacle in this respect lies in political and world outlook differences of elites in power. (original abstract)
EN
The purpose of the article is to enhance the oil recovery coefficient of lower Menilite deposits of the Strutynsky oil field by using an ASP solution (a mixture of three agents: alkaline, surfactant and polymer (ASP)). The tasks were solved by choosing an effective method of enhancing oil recovery by using EORgui software and hydrodynamic modelling software by using Petrel, Eclipse software. Calculations of computer simulations indicate the possibility and technological efficiency of residual oil extraction through the use of ASP solution. After using the method of oil recovery enhancing in the lower Menilite deposits of the Strutynsky oil field by means of ASP solution, the coefficient of final oil recovery will increase from the initial value of 10.4% to the predicted 17.6%. For the first time, geological and hydrodynamic models have been created for the conditions of the Lower Menilite deposits of the Strutynsky oil field, and the most appropriate method for oil recovery enhancing by using the EORgui program has been selected. The suggested method for oil recovery enhancing can be applied within the framework of the concept for reviving the Lower Menilithic deposits of the Strutynsky oil field, as well as in other oil fields of Ukraine, which are developed with waterflood patterns and have similar geological and physical characteristics. (original abstract)
XX
W artykule omówiono wielkość złóż ropy Arabii Saudyjskiej. Powszechnie uważa się, że Arabia Saudyjska kontroluje około jednej czwartej światowych zasobów ropy. Zdaniem ekspertów aby uniknąć zakłóceń w dostawach, nie można pozwolić na błędy w ocenie możliwości kluczowych eksporterów. Istotnym problemem jest brak informacji co do udokumentowanych rezerw ropy w krajach Bliskiego Wschodu.
XX
Grupa Lotos S.A., której zdolność produkcyjna po rozbudowie sięga 6 mln ton rocznie, należy do grona średnich rafinerii w skali europejskiej. Jak każda spółka działająca na wolnym rynku podlega licznym uwarunkowaniom gospodarczym, ale także politycznym.
XX
Artykuł omawia światowy rynek ropy naftowej, popyt na naftę, import ropy.
EN
The article aims to provide a theoretical basis for the assessment of the institutional impact on oil production. The availability of fuel is the key driver of the functioning national economy, which determines the strategic and tactical landmarks of socioeconomic development and vectors of the country's foreign economic course. Such tendencies are represented in the results of the provided correlation analysis of the fluctuation between oil-production volumes and greenhouse gas emissions, the use of alternative energy sources, the number of patents for oil production, and unemployment. The provided bibliometric analysis, which was made using VOSviewer, has shown the content of interconnections between the categories of oil production and institutional determinants. The authors hypothesised that changes in the institutional environment and their interconnectedness formed a chain "oil production and oil rents → the level of corruption → the efficiency of public governance". The hypothesis was confirmed by constructing a system of dynamic models and using the Generalised Method of Moments. The calculations confirmed that oil rents were associated with corruption and were a direct threat to the stability of public institutions. An increasing level of corruption was associated with an increase in the level of rent payments and occurred only when the quality of democratic institutions was below the threshold level. The current level of efficiency in public administration did not have a significant impact on national oil production. Of all indicators, only the level of political stability had a statistically significant impact on oil production. The identified interconnections provide the basis for creating an efficient state policy aimed at effectively functioning state institutions, which promote the development of the oil industry, and the reduction of the country's energy dependence as well as strengthen the resilience of the national economy. (original abstract)
EN
Research Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has the capacity of severely disrupting economic activities and triggering economic crisis, especially in Africa's Oil Exporting Countries (AOECs). The African economy is likely to be the worst hit, especially the Africa Oil Exporting Countries (AOECs), as they have been majorly low income countries and considering the fall in oil prices, as oil revenue forms a major source of their revenue and government expenditure. Purpose: This study explored the stakeholders' opinions on reshaping and restructuring the economies of six African Oil Exporting Countries, with the aim of ascertaining the views of academics within the six AOECs, as regards the economic revival post COVID-19. Research methodology: The study utilized the Participatory Development Strategy Approach (PDSA), employing the Cronbach Alpha Reliability test, Estimated Response Rate (ERR) and Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA) to extract opinions from 1,260 stakeholders within the six AOECs. Results: The results show that the stakeholders are of the opinion that the solutions to the rebuilding of AOECs are multi-faceted, suggesting a mixture of both government and private institutions in varying degrees. Some of the respondents favoured going back to agriculture and agribusiness to revamp their economies. Novelty: The study utilized an uncommon methodology; the Participatory Development Strategy Approach (PDSA) to achieve its objective. The PDSA is meant to allow the affected stakeholders' participation in the policy making process. The respondents were purely academics, as it is believed that academics are the sources of hope of solving myriads of human challenges such as hunger and economic crisis. (original abstract)
EN
Petroleum was of little interest to analytical chemistry scholars until the mid-19th century, as they considered it unhelpful to experiment with an explosive chemical compound with niche utility value. The discovery of oil's potential is credited to Polish pharmacists Ignacy Łukasiewicz and Jan Zeh, who performed the chemical separation of oil in a pharmacy laboratory using the scientific method of fractional distillation. The isolation of the kerosene fraction from oil was exploited by Ignacy Łukasiewicz, who created an innovative design for a lamp. Lighting with cheap kerosene became the idea of the explorer, who, with the help of Polish investors, organised the first oil mine and refinery in 1854, laying the foundation for the oil mining and petrochemical industry. Łukasiewicz's lamp, entering mass use, initiated global demand for oil. The accounts of Polish and Austrian historians on the pioneering role of Łukasiewicz in this regard support the arguments from the field of physics and analytical chemistry developed by Wojciech Roeske, who demystifies the amateurish, intuitive methods of oil purification of Łukasiewicz's predecessors, documents the merits of the Pole as a pioneer - an ancestor of the oil industry derived from the tradition of Polish pharmacy. (original abstract)
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