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EN
The aim of the research was to examine the effect of rhizospheric bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum, Pseudomonas fluorescens (strains 1 and 2) and Bacillus subtilis on the growth and yield of onion and on the microorganisms in the rhizosphere of onion. The ability of microorganisms to produce indole-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores and to solubilize tricalcium phosphate (TCP) was also assessed. The experiment was conducted in field conditions, in chernozem type of soil. Bacillus subtilis was the best producer of IAA, whereas Pseudomonas fluorescens strains were better at producing siderophores and solubilizing phosphates. The longest seedling was observed with the application of Azotobacter chroococcum. The height of the plants sixty days after sowing was greater in all the inoculated variants than in the control. The highest onion yield was observed in Bacillus subtilis and Azotobacter chroococcum variants. The total number of bacteria and the number of Azotobacter chroococcum were larger in all the inoculated variants then in the control. The number of fungi decreased in most of the inoculated variants, whereas the number of actinomycetes decreased or remained the same.
EN
The object of the study are 6 varieties of spring barley from the region and the EU: Tunika, Ortega, Josefina, Astor, Jaran Askona. The plots where parameters for two different agro-climatic areas and pedological differences are researched are: Dukagjini field in Pejë. The research of the Agricultural Institute of Kosovo and the Kosovo Plain, as in Pestovo, which is privately owned land, in Kosovo. Barley is a strategic crop which is planted every year on an area of 5000–10000 ha. The average yield realized during the last years is about 2.5 t/ha. The agroclimatic and pedological data of Kosovo, compared to the yields obtained in barley culture, show that the genetic potential of barley production is great. Kosovo has an area of 1.1 million ha, of which 53 percent is under cultivation, 41 percent from forests. About 88% of agricultural land is privately owned, while the rest is owned by social enterprises. Of the 577,000 ha of agricultural land, about 300,000 ha are planted with agricultural crops. Cereals are cultivated on 44% of the surface, of which wheat 45%, corn 44%, oats 8%, barley 3% and rye less than 1%.
EN
This report presents an analysis of productivity trends in a suburban beet-producing region impacted by the loss of agricultural land by land claims. The analysis was conducted in the model cadastral locality of Dolní Heršpice. In order to calculate the potential production of agricultural crops, the authors selected one sowing structure that has been applied starting from 1950 until present. The choice of particular crop succession was based on the exemplary sowing structure for beet-producing regions provided by the Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture. The calculation of the potential production of agricultural crops was divided into three time intervals, 1950-1990, 1990-2006, and 2006-2019. In the period from 1950 to 2019, the studied locality underwent a loss of arable land of 145.19 ha. The yield in a particular time interval was derived from the selected sowing procedure and subsequently recalculated to the surface area of the lost arable land. The results show that in the time interval 1950-1990, the produced agricultural crops could have reached a total of 26,975.28 tons. In the period 1990-2006, the yield of crops could be 5,598.85 tons, and in the period 2006-2019, a total of 8,423.6 tons of agricultural crops could have been achieved in the studied locality. The total yield for the entire monitored period could represent 40,997.50 tons of agricultural crops. The productivity by hectare oriented cultivation in all the monitored time intervals to prevailing sugar beet and potatoes. The analysis was compared with the statistical data on the development of sowing areas, production and yields of the monitored crops in the Czech Republic. The presented study documents the trend of arable land loss and potential threat of insufficient production, particularly in the case of strategic commodities such as sugar beet in beet-producing regions.
EN
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of biochar that obtained from walnut shell and thyme stalk on yield and biomass development of pepper plant. Biochar obtained by self-constructed oxygen-free reactor at 400°C. According to experimental design, 2 different biochar raw materials (walnut shell and thyme stalk) at 3 different doses (0, 0.1 and 0.2% w/w) were evaluated in either with or without sulphur application (0 and 0.1% w/w). Results revealed that the all parameters tested were greatly influenced from raw material, biochar dose as well as sulphur applications. Significant differences were determined between the raw materials in which the biochar was made. According to mean values the walnut shell biochar provide 38% more shoot dry weight than thyme stalk biochar. These findings clearly indicate that although biochar almost consisted of carbon, all of the biochar are not the same, and depends on the raw material; biochar even can reduce plant growth. The effect of sulfur application was also significant, especially in the pots where biochar and sulfur were applied together. The lowest yield value was determined at control as well as 0.1% thyme stalk biochar applied pots as 34.2 and 33.4 g pot-1, respectively while the highest yield value was determined at 5 g walnut shell biochar and sulphur applied pot as 75.7 g pot-1. It has been determined that dose and efficiency studies should be performed for each raw material to determine optimal biochar source and doses.
EN
Drought is an important factor that causes a decrease in yield and quality in regions where second crop silage plants are grown. One of the biggest problems in animal husbandry is feed. Especially silage feed production tends to decrease in areas with increasing water deficit and where water needs cannot be met. The high water requirement of the corn plant requires irrigation in arid and semi-arid regions. However, in order to continue the production of silage fodder in regions where water resources are insufficient with the increase of drought, it will be necessary to grow forage plants that can be an alternative to corn plant. In previous studies, it has been discussed whether the sorghum plant is an alternative to the corn plant. The aim of this study is to determine the drought sensitivity index based on the yield values of both plants in wet and dry conditions. Thus, it will be determined whether the sorghum plant will be an alternative to the corn plant in terms of drought. The identification and selection of drought-resistant cultivars and species is possible using various indices. In this study, second crop silage maize and sorghum crops were grown in Kahramanmaraş conditions for two years (2018 and 2019), dry and irrigated. Stress sensitivity index (SSI) was used to determine the drought tolerance of silage maize and sorghum crops. 'Colonia' variety was used for silage corn and 'Es Foehn' variety was used for sorghum. When the STI values are examined, the corn and sorghum values for 2018 were 0.55 and 0.53, respectively, while the d values for 2019 were found as 0.33 in corn and 0.54 in sorghum. these values are very close to the YSI values. While the 2018 values in both indices were not determinative in terms of drought resistance, the value of sorghum in 2019 was 64% higher than corn (this value was found to be 61% for YSI). This also showed that there is a direct correlation between YSI and STI indices.
EN
In Ukraine, sorghum is grown in an area of 41000−49000 ha, with the yield ranging over years from 0.99 t/ha (2001) to 4.63 t/ha (2018). Such differences in productivity may be explained by the fact that, in recent decades, the value of degree-days in the Steppe zone increased from 3145 °C (1990) to 3550 °C (2019), and in the Forest Steppe zone by 445 °C. At the same time, the current annual precipitation in Ukraine is 578 mm, while sustainable farming requires 700 mm. In Steppe, which is a traditional sorghum cultivation zone, the change in climatic conditions led to insufficient soil moisture, with weather conditions influencing the formation of sorghum grain yield. The assessment of the stability and plasticity of the sorghum yield allows us to conclude that cultivation of this crop will not be effective without irrigation, adjustment of the cultivation technology or introduction of the varieties adapted to drought and high temperature. On the contrary, in Forest Steppe, conditions for obtaining high yields of sorghum improved in recent decades. Thus, in Vinnytsia region, favorable conditions formed in the years 2011−2020, in Kyiv region 2001−2005 and 2011−2015, and Poltava and Cherkasy regions 2006−2020. However, in Vinnytsia region, in the years 2001−2005, and in Kyiv region 2006−2010, low yield plasticity was caused by the negative impact of the extreme drought. Consequently, to reach high crop productivity and stable grain yield, it is necessary to introduce an ecologically sound sown area structure and use varieties of different genetic and geographical origins that are more resistant to the impact of adverse environment.
EN
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of four fertigation levels (25, 50, 75 and 100% of fertilizer dose, 240:100:200 kg N:P:K ha-1) and to compare with conventional practices (CP). The fertigation levels F1 25% of total fertilizer (60:25:50 kg N:P:K ha-1) treatments, F2 treatment is 50% of total fertilizer (120:50:100 kg N:P:K ha-1), F3 treatment is 75% of total fertilizer (180:75:150 kg N:P:K ha-1), F4 treatment is 100% of total fertilizer (240:100:200 kg N:P:K ha-1). The experiment was conducted during 2012 summer (from 20 June to 15 September) under the field conditions in the Menzilat soil series (Typic Xerofluvents) which is located in the East Mediterranean coastal part of Turkey. The experiment was designed as a completely randomized-block with three replications. The maize plant (Zea mays L.) was sown as second crop following with wheat cultivation. The maize yield was higher in F3 fertigation level treatment (12.47 Mg ha-1) compared to the other treatments. Lowest yield was recorded in F2 (8.45 Mg ha-1) treatment. The results shown that the half of the fertilizer application with conventional practices and the other half with fertigation are more efficient under Menzilat soil series conditions. For future, it is important to see the long term effect of fertigation on soil nutrients dynamic under the Mediterranean soil conditions.
EN
This elaboration was based on yields of nine medium-early cultivars of potato grown in Karżniczka station belonging to COBORU(Research Centre for Cultivar Testing) and on monthly precipitation sums during the growing season (April – August). For each of the cultivars separately in subsequent years and for precipitation sums in particular months of the growing season (IV–VII) polynomial regression models of precipitation – cultivar’s yield – were calculated. At the beginning of the growing season the yield of medium-early cultivars of potato was negatively correlated with monthly precipitation sums, while in the final stage of vegetation – this correlation was positive. The lowest yield of Stasia cultivar was noted with monthly precipitation sum of 34–38 mm in April, Tajfun cultivar with May precipitation from 100 to 120 mm, Finezja and Jurek cultivars with monthly June precipitation of 120 mm. Whereas maximum yield of Cekin and Jurek cultivars was noted with August precipitation of about 100 mm.
EN
Kamchatka berries contain many valuable organic and mineral compounds. However, the ripe berries are not very firm and have low transport resistance. We aimed to study the effect of chitosan solutions of different molecular weights on the growth, yield, and quality of Kamchatka berries. Chitosan with lower molecular weights, 3 and 12 kDa, stimulated plant growth, while those with molecular weights above 50 kDa reduced plant growth compared with control shrubs. Chitosan 125 and 500 kDa increased Kamchatka berry yield. In addition, chitosan 125 kDa increased fruit weight throughout the yield period. Fruit sprayed with chitosan 3, 5, and 50 kDa were dark in colour at harvest. Chitosan 3, 5, 12, and 50 kDa increased fruit/skin resistance to mechanical damage. Finally, chitosan 3, 5, 50, and 950 kDa increased average fruit firmness. Overall, we recommend higher molecular weight chitosan to increase yield and lower molecular weight chitosan to increase firmness and resistance to damage.
EN
Magnetic field may be applied as a physical factor to improve germination capacity as well as growth and development of plants. In order to investigate the influence of stimulation with magnetic field and fertilization on the yield and quality of sugar beet roots, a field experiment was carried out in 2015 and it was designed to examine three cultivars of sugar beets, two variants of magnetic stimulation applied to seeds: stimulation in the magnetic field of 40 mT, and control conditions (no stimulation), as well as two variants of mineral fertilization: optimal, based on the contents of nutrients in soil, and control conditions (no fertilization). Observation of the plants’ growth and development was conducted during the vegetation period. The examined values included yield of roots and leaves, as well as contents of heavy metals, macro- and micro-elements and sugar. The observations carried out during the experiment and following harvest showed that the applied variable factors used in the experiment, i.e. the pre-sowing stimulation with magnetic field as well as properly designed fertilization, positively affect the parameters of the plants germination, growth and development as well as the contents of sugar in the examined sugar beet roots.
EN
The paper aimed at comparing the yield and concentrations of zinc, copper and nickel in maize cultivated in soil fertilized with two different sewage sludge with yielding of maize fertilized with manure and solely with mineral fertilizers. The experiment was conducted in plastic pots, of which each contained 8.5 kg of air-dried soil with granulometric composition of light sandy loam and neutral pH. Sewage sludge used for the experiment originated from two municipal sewage sludge treatment plants in Krzeszowice (sludge I) and Niepołomice (sludge II), while manure from a private farm in Czernichów district. The test plant was maize (Zea mays) cultivated for 74 days and then harvested for green forage. On the basis of conducted research it was found that various fertilizer combinations applied in the experiment had a significant influence on the test plant yielding. All compared fertilizer variants allowed maize to produce statistically significantly higher yield in comparison with the yield harvested from the unfertilized soils. Fertilization with sewage sludge I supplemented with mineral treatment and application of solely mineral salts proved the most beneficial for the maize yield. Applied fertilizer combinations affected the content of microelements. The highest concentrations of nickel in maize green mass were assessed in plant samples from the unfertilized object, whereas zinc and copper from mineral fertilization variant. Except of zinc, introducing additional metal doses did not influence their increased content in plant organs. Soil enrichment with zinc contained in sewage sludge I and II (respectively 77.4 mg and 49.9 mg ∙ pot-1) contributed to its elevated concentration in maize roots but at the same time this metal content statistically significantly decreased in maize shoots in comparison with the amounts determined in plants fertilized with mineral materials.
EN
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important food and cash crop in Rwanda. The objective of this study was to identify suitable potato varieties for growing under aeroponics production systems. Four commercial potato varieties - Kirundo, CIP 393371-58, Kinigi and Kigega - were evaluated in an aeroponics green house at Rwanda Agriculture Board RAB-Musanze station, from January to May 2016. The study consisted of 30 plantlets per m2. The experimental design was a split plot design with four replications. In an enclosed environment, the supply of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), and other nutrients to plants were done by use of a mist nebulizer. The results showed there was an increased vegetative cycle in CIP 393371-58 (with 8.2 cm plant height and 3.3 nodes) followed by Kirundo (1 cm plant height and 1.5 nodes ), Kinigi (27.1 cm plant height and 6.2 nodes) and Kigega (56.4 cm height and 19.3 nodes), respectively. The maturity period of CIP 393371-58 was 70 days. This was earlier than Kinigi (77 days), Kirundo (112 days) and Kigega (156 days), respectively. The mini-tuber per plant production was also higher in CIP 393371-58 (41), followed by Kinigi (36), Kirundo (28) and Kigega (7), respectively. The data showed that the CIP 393371-58 variety was better adapted to an aeroponics environment than were Kinigi, Kirundo, and Kigega, respectively.
EN
Tetrazene [1-(5-tetrazolyl)-4-guanyltetrazene hydrate] is widely used in ordnance systems as a sensitizer of primer compositions, for use in both percussion and stab applications. It can be synthesized by reacting aminoguanidinium bicarbonate (AGB) with sodium nitrite (NaNO2) in the presence of acetic acid. However, little is known about its optimal synthesis parameters in the manufacturing process. In this study, Taguchi's experimental design method was used to further improve the yield of tetrazene. Under the condition that the molar ratio of AGB to NaNO2 was fixed at 1.0:1.2, a L9(33) orthogonal array with three control factors and three levels for each control factor was used to design nine experimental conditions. The experimental data were transformed into a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio to analyze and evaluate the experimental conditions of the optimal parameter combination for the maximum yield of tetrazene. Verification of the results indicated that the optimal synthesis parameters were as follows: pH value of AGB solution was 5.0, reaction temperature was 35 °C and reaction time was 6 h; the maximum yield of tetrazene could reach 83.7%. Furthermore, the synthesized tetrazene was identified and characterized by elemental analysis (EA), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), optical microscopy (OM),particle size distribution analysis (PSDA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and its impact sensitivity was determined using a BAM Fallhammer apparatus and the Bruceton analysis method.
EN
The study examined the impact of climate variability on yield of maize and yam in Cross River State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to determine the long-run and short-run impact of climate variability factors on yields of maize and yam. Data were sourced from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NiMeT) and Cross River State Ministry of Agriculture spanning from 1990-2016. Data obtained were analyzed using inferential statistics. Precisely, the model was estimated by the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) multiple regression technique, which is within the Autoregressive Distributed Lag Bound approach and error correction testing framework. Both model-1 (maize yield) and model-2 (yam yield) passed through the conditions of the diagnostics and stability test. The study revealed that climate variables had a significant impact on maize yield both in the long and short-run. Based on the findings, it was concluded that proactive measures should be put in place to aid crop farmers adapt to the prevailing and looming threats of climate variability for the purpose of attaining the State’s food security balance sheet. To sustain this drive, an institutional and infrastructural support system is advocated in order to meet one of the goals of sustainable development agenda of the United Nations. Policy recommendations on how to cushion the impact of climate variability on the prescribed crops have been appropriately cited.
EN
The conventional Boolean logic models of land suitability assessment disregard the continuity concepts of the soil and landscape which might cause inaccurate evaluation and classification. To overcome this uncertainty and consequent constraints, the fuzzy set theories were introduced. Therefore, the current study was undertaken to estimate the optimum soil depth that is used in land suitability evaluation for irrigated rice through the fuzzy sets theory and analytic hierarchy process (fuzzy AHP) in Guilan Province, Iran. The square root and quantitative land suitability evaluation methods were employed to calculate traditional land suitability indices (for depths, 0-25, 0-50, 0-75, and 0-100 cm). Also, fuzzy and fuzzy AHP methods were used to explore new land indices. The Sarma similarity indices were used to compare the results of traditional and fuzzy methods for different soil depths. The results showed that the compatibility percentage between the representative pedons (0-100 cm) and the findings of this research (0-50 and 0-75 cm) were remarkable. Furthermore, the highest compatibility percentage of land suitability class was related to the comparison of these two former depths and 0 to 100 cm depths in each of the two used fuzzy methods. Besides, except for 0-25 cm depths, actual yield revealed a significant and positive correlation with the rest three soil pedon depths. These findings show that considering 0 to 50 cm soil depth might be a relevant alternative as the optimal depth to evaluate land suitability for rice in paddy fields in the Guilan rice-growing area. 
EN
The paperwork includes estimate of irrigation on yield effect of highbush blueberry. The research was conducted in 2014-2016, on a small plantation located in Przyczyna Górna, in the Wschowski county, in the Lubuskie Province. The plantation’s area was 800 m2. The article presents an analysis of five varieties of highbush blueberry: Patriot, Duke, Chandler, Elliott and Bluecrop. The frequency of irrigation and the amount of water supplied to the shrubs depended mainly on the distribution of atmospheric precipitation and the optimal humidity that the soil needs in growing blueberries. The need for irrigation was determined on the basis of soil water suction measurements using tensiometers. The shrubs were irrigated with a drip line with a spacing adjusted to the spacing of blueberry bushes. The annual dose of water used for irrigation were from 144 mm to 303 mm. The research showed that the average crop increase amounted to 167%, because of irrigation. In 2015, which was a wet year, the increase was 140% and in the average year (2014) was 193%. It was not connected only with amount of precipitation, but with the distribution of precipitation at growing season. The best yield was noted for Chandler (32% of yield), Patriot and Bluecrop (20%).
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