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EN
This paper explores reasons for the apparent ineffectiveness of religious education programmes in the Catholic schools of the West. It examines the impact of the anti-realist educational philosophy of Constructivism and the inadequacy of responses to these challenges, including those proposed by Recontextualisation theologians. The paper examines the work of the nineteenth century Eng-lish Cardinal, John Henry Newman, and recommends possible solutions to the crisis in religious education based on the work of his insights. It also argues the case for certitude as a necessary component of religious education.
3
Content available Przedmiotowy aspekt wiary według Immanuela Kanta
80%
Studia Ełckie
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2018
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tom 20
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nr 4
429-439
EN
The object of faith in the sense of Kant is the postulates of practical reason that is, the immortality of the soul and the existence of God. Together, they constitute the conditions for the possibility of the highest good. Objects of faith are natural, which means that they are constructed by human reason and not revealed by God. On the subject of the immortality of the soul and the existence of God, Kant speaks only from the perspective of pure practical reason. A comparison of the conception of faith of pure practical reason with the conception of Christian faith makes the differences between these two perspectives of faith visible. These differences indicate the specificity of each of them. It is particularly important that rational faith acknowledges the existence of postulates of practical reason, and the supernatural faith concerns the content revealed by God. Faith according to Kant is a natural activity, whereas revealed faith is a supernatural act. Furthermore, rational faith is limited only to the order of practical reason, whereas Christian faith is the activity of reason and will at the same time.
4
Content available The mirror of science
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EN
Mathematics is a family of theories; there is an interpretation of every science of the physical world in the corresponding mathematical structure. Hence, mathematics is the mirror of science in its entirety.
PL
Paweł Włodkowic – Latin Paulus Vladimiri (1370-1435): Catholic priest, scholar, jurist, religious and political writer, rector of the Jagiellonian University, defender of Polish interests in disputes with Knights of the Teutonic Order. Paweł Włodkowic was an early teacher of the idea of tolerance, who during the Council of Constance stated that pagan nations have the right to maintain their religious beliefs. Based on the major theological authority of that time, i.e. Saint Thomas Aquinas, Włodkowic could, in the very concept of faith in the Catholic Church, see the most important elements requiring tolerance. The point is, above all, that faith must be an act of human freedom, that it is God’s grace and that it is closely related to reason. These elements have been commented on by authorities such as Edith Stein and Joseph Ratzinger.
6
Content available L’educare e il credere tra vecchie e nuove utopie
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PL
The article focuses three problematic knots. The fi rst one underlines how the modern utopias are not dead, but they have strikingly moved: the modern ideal of freedom, for example, changed into the post-modern ideal of security; the monism of values shared in common turned into a pluralism of personal, discontinuous and fragmented choices. The second knot identi fi es education itself as an evolving utopia: from the post colonial dream of education for all to the present priority to educate ex novo the social links in a globalised world; from the society of knowledge (instrumental good) to a pluralistic society of living together (structural good). The third knot calls to mind the classical eschatological hendiadys of the “already and not yet” that the theology of Christian Hope propose once more as the paradigm of the human living. In the - political and at same time mystic-dynamic of the historical present, dissuading in this way the believers from looking for the salvation in easy and utopian projections beyond this world.
7
Content available Czy wiara decyduje o normach moralnych?
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EN
Faith is a gift, because God takes the initiative to meet people. Any person accepting the gift of faith makes God the solid foundation of his life. The Christian faith can not exist “on its own”, since God’s revelation requires the authority of the Church, to not go wrong. Therefore, it is necessary to believe in the Church, where faith also grows and develops. Anyone who loses his connection to the Church, also loses faith. Moreover, the existence of the Church confirms the truth that faith determines moral principles. Accepting baptism signifies acceptance Christian morality and Christian teaching. The modern world wants to constrain Christian faith to the private sphere. The consequence of such an action is relativism of moral norms which subsequently lose their foundation which proceeds from the authority of the Church.
Studia Ełckie
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2017
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tom 19
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nr 2
117 - 129
EN
The task posed by the author of the article is to analyze the problem of the relation of faith and reason in the Encyclical Fides et ratio. He analyzes the importance of the key terms, and indicates their place in the tradition of European philosophy. It does also, on the basis of the content of the papal document, some comments on the nature of the systematic comparison of natural knowledge to Revelation and the philosophy of the natural sciences.
EN
Considerations, undertaken by the article, lead to a conclusion that reason and faith as sources of knowing God are determined by many factors. Analyses of Zofia J. Zdybicka’ s works show that the rational knowledge about God is conditioned with limits of the human nature, specificity of the nature of Absolute Being, as well as historical and cultural contexts (which contain possibilities of common sense knowledge, and type of philosophical cognition). While the knowledge about God acquired through religious faith is shaped with the historical Revelation of Divine Persons, and forms of its social and personal reception. So if reason and faith have their own autonomy, ie. “spaces” where they can be realized in accordance with their own natures, then it is not possible to give up on any of them without disturbing to know not only God, but man as well.
10
Content available remote Na vnějším okraji "Teologického traktátu"
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EN
The article is prefaces by a biographical note by Jan Zouhar, Remembering Jaroslav Šabata. In the article itself Šabata, “in the outer margins of Czesław Miłosz’s Theological Tract”, offers a profoundly personal confession of lived dynamics of faith, be it Christian or Communist. He understands faith as a stance of willingness to measure oneself by more than personal interest. He speaks of an unconditional trust which makes for a historical catharsis. Rejecting neither the Communist nor the Christian ideal, heraises them to the level of a transformation of historical subjectivity intensified by the struggle for social transformation. Tus his confession transcends the seeming chasm between Christian and communist faith.
EN
The transmission of the essence of faith takes an important place in teaching religion. It is directly connected with the task of developing the knowledge of faith on every level of children’s and teenagers’ education. People involved in teaching and catechetical education, also religion teachers, are responsible for accomplishing this task. Today, after twenty two years of teaching religion at school, the transmission of the essence of faith is being critically discussed in school environment. The objections concern difficulties and limitations relating to the transmission of the essence of faith in school environment. Catechists and religion teachers unanimously claim that the transmission of the essence of faith is not possible without the grace of God in sacraments. They seldom pay attention to the teacher’s role in the process of transmitting the essence of faith. The author of this article makes an attempt to show the tasks that a religion teacher should fulfill as far as transmitting the essence of faith in school environment is concerned. Not only strategies of development and experiencing faith but also limitations and difficulties relating to it were mentioned. At first, the term „transmission of faith” was explained. Next, a short characterization of teaching religion at school was made. The  basic tasks of religion teachers in transmitting the essence of faith were depicted in this context. Apart from catechetical activities directed at pupils, the attention was also paid to teaching staff, school staff and parents. This is because a religion teacher is qualified to have influence on all members of catechetical interaction in school environment. Finally, the most important, crucial to religion teaching and parish catechesis, open issues were described. They require further theoretical research and empirical verification. Searching the new model of catechetical priesthood is also essential.
EN
Following the Second Vatican Council, the Catholic Church notices the need for the existence in particular dioceses of an institutional way of Christian initiation for adults who wish to follow the teachings of Jesus Christ. At the same time, there is a universal recognition of the need to organize in local churches and relatively big parishes special places where it would be possible for adults to gradually experience post-baptismal initiation. Zbigniew Kiernikowski, the Bishop of Legnica, offers us a comprehensive proposition of Christian initiation for adults, which can be experienced both prior to and after the celebration of the sacraments of Christian initiation. He updates the way of initiation in a very specific manner, which the Church recommends in the Rite of Christian initiation of adults adjusted to Polish customs. His proposition is firmly set in the biblical, liturgical, ecclesial and existential contexts. Its great asset is the author’s pastoral practice. The outline of the catechumenate and proposed catecheses were not created by him while sitting at a desk, but rather as a result of his ministry, the long-term programmes implemented personally in the dioceses of Siedlce and Legnica, the catecheses delivered, the scrutinies carried out and the sacraments celebrated. Yet, it needs to be stressed that the presented catecheses do not deal with all the essential dimensions of a Christian’s new life. Neither are they a systematic theological lecture on the sacraments of initiation. His numerous texts contain very interesting intuitions related to the existence of a new man, the Son of God, who is born thanks to being immersed in the waters of baptism. His proposition of experiencing initiation is incredibly valuable and unique against the backdrop of the Polish contemporary thought and sacramental practice.
13
Content available Conversion in the Fourth Gospel
71%
Verbum Vitae
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2022
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tom 40
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nr 4
957-975
EN
The essence of the proclamation of the Good News is a call to conversion, which seems absent from the Fourth Gospel due to the lack of any direct reference. The biblical idea of conversion is first expressed there by a call to believe in Jesus as the Son of God; then by the repeated motif of coming out of darkness into the light, approaching and discovering (accepting) the truth; being born of God and the Spirit, approaching Jesus, testifying about him, accepting and following him, and finally glorifying God. This study aims to present this multi-faceted process, whose framework is outlined by John, first in the prologue to his Gospel and then developed in the narrative. The same order is applied in the individual stages of this analysis employing a synchronic approach, which enables the readers to derive the edifying call to turn to Jesus and follow him to gain eternal life from the final, i.e., canonical, version of John’s text.
15
Content available Canonical approach to the year of faith
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EN
The article offers a demonstration of the correlation between faith and church law in the catholic perspective. The author stands on the position that faith is of essence for law understood as a phenomenon and as regulations that play an active role in the life of community of believers. It is because faith is a factor in the processes of drafting law, interpreting law, and implementing law. The conclusion is that in the study of church law more attention should be paid to faith especially during the Year of faith.
16
Content available Wiara w Jezusa wyzwaniem do miłowania ojczyzny
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PL
Miłość ojczyzny i wiara w Jezusa to dwa bieguny, które są względem siebie otwarte, domagając się bliższego spojrzenia. W debacie publicznej i przestrzeni religijnej zagadnienie patriotyzmu w kontekście wiary w Jezusa jest zagadnieniem zdewaluowanym. Wobec takiego stanu rzeczy została podjęta próba odpowiedzi na pytanie, czy wiara w Jezusa (i czy w ogóle?) jest wyzwaniem dla miłowania ojczyzny? Artykuł został podzielony na trzy części: 1. Chrześcijańskie określenie wiary; 2. Ojczyzna i patriotyzm; 3. Biblijna perspektywa miłowania ojczyzny. Poczynione badania prowadzą do wniosku, że wiara w Boga nie tylko może stać się źródłem i siłą każdego rodzaju patriotyzmu, ale również być gwarantem trwałego pokoju między ludźmi.
EN
Love to the homeland and faith in Jesus are two aspects, which are open to one another, demanding the closer scrutiny. In public debate and the religious space the question in terms of faith in Jesus is a devaluated question. In such circumstances one tried to answer the question if the faith in Jesus or the faith in general is the challenge to love one’s homeland. The article was divided into three parts: 1. the christian definition of faith, 2. the homeland and the patriotism, 3. love one’s homeland in biblical perspective. The research lead to the conclusion that faith in God can be the source and the momentum of all kinds of patriotism, as well as the guarantee of the lasting peace among people.
EN
The paper maintains and reinforces a viewpoint that science and religion (theology) are methodologically and epistemologically independent. However, it also suggests that this independence can be overcome if a “third party” is taken into account, that is – philosophy. Such a possibility seems to follow from the thesis of incommensurability and the thesis of underdetermination formulated and analysed in the current philosophy of science.
EN
The first half of the eighties of the twentieth century is associated in history with the death of two great figures of contemporary philosophy and theology: Jean Paul Sartre – a leading representative of French existentialism and Karl Rahner – the author of transcendentally oriented existential theology. Both thinkers exerted a huge influence on the philosophical and theological reflection of their era. Taking as their starting point the necessity of the human freedom, they come to the different conclusions about the nature of man, the status of the subjectivity and the meaning of human destiny. Sartre joined the absurdity of freedom with nothingness and awe. Rahner saw in it a gift of hope and revelation of the Absolute. How could they come to such different conclusions? What made, that despite a similar starting point, their understanding of freedom is so different? This article reconstructs and compares the main lines of reasoning of both thinkers. It also attempts to answer, what is the reason of their different approach to the problem of freedom.
EN
The faith of parents is an important factor to be taken into account while weighing the problem of educating children. The parent’s part in religious upbringing of their children is constant meeting the challenges which are the consequence of the sacrament of baptism and the tasks it imposes. The problem is vital, because in the process of religious upbringing the parents  should be witnesses, not only instructors. The child’s faith is built on the faith of  his parents, who, in their lives, should be authentic witnesses of their faith. They should create appropriate situations  that may stimulate their children’s willingness  to meet God. Simultaneously, they should  observe their children’s spiritual development, without using any forms of pressure. The parent’s faith is an example for a young growing person how to get to know God. Christian parents should not only talk about Christ, but also let their children know Him through their own testimony of life and love.
20
70%
EN
The article presents the thought of Father Dumitru Staniloae ( t 1993), one of the most outstanding Romanian theologians of the 20th century, based on his book Poztia d-lui Lucian Blaga fata de Crestinism si Ortodoxie (The Attitude of Mr. Lucian Blaga toward Christianity and Orthodoxy) Sibiu, 1942. The author begins by expounding the general character of the universal religious phenomenon. Beyond the multiplicity of the forms and the ways in which religion is manifested there are certain common points. Fr. Staniloae distinguishes five such specific elements typical for religion: 1. a strong and steadfast faith in the truth of the things it professes; 2. the personal character of the ultimate reality; 3. there is a certain differentiation a believer makes between these ultimate realities with a clear and less clear personal character and nature - even though sometimes the divine reality is perceived in an extremely intimate relationship with nature, each religion preserves an awareness that the divine reality is something else than nature itself; 4. the belief in the self-revelation of the divine reality - it is a universal conviction with the believers of all religions that the Divinity revealed and reveals Itself and the data about It are not a figment of the human mind or imagination, a self-revelation of the human spirit; 5. a certain expectance, confidence and hope with which man ties himself up to the Divinity in as far as his destiny is concerned. The universal human consciousness expects and believes in man’s salvation from under the destructive power of nature or of certain evil forces. Expectation is a deep instinct of the human nature; faith is the mysterious power given to man at the same time with any religion. There is also a functional interpenetration of these elements. Faith without a personal God and without revelation cannot exist, nor without the presence of a purpose, as that of the salvation of existence. Their persistence reveals the existence of a personal relationship between God and man in the interest of his salvation, as well as man’s firm belief in the possibility of a personal salvation and in a special communion with God and, as a result, that there is also an interest on the part of God to save man. Faith and revelation are conveyed from generation to generation, but at the same time faith is largely produced by revelation, each man experiencing in a mysterious way the pressure of the ultimate reality upon his conscience. All kinds of theories have been conceived which see religion as originating from the divinization of the forces of nature, society, or a political leader etc. In reality however religious experience distinguishes the divine from all these phenomena, even though it may have the experience of the divine presence and of its power in connection with them. Religious experience is an awareness of the mysterious presence of the Divinity and as such any religious man knows the difference. In the case of the religious phenomenon we come across a minimal realization and participation of the ultimate reality pertaining essentially to the faith in the Divinity, to its revelation and to the hope in a personal salvation as a common minimal background of all religions, and as such of the Christian Faith. Fr Staniloae draws our attention to the fact that what counts in the relation among religions is not this minimal background but the contribution of each religion. In his attempt to draw a line between Christianity and the other religions, he asserts that everything the non-Christian religions possess in addition, as a surplus, is either a jungle of myths, or a resuscitation in different manners of the same minimal background which make up the universal religious conviction. Myth is a human invention bom of his endeavour to capture in image the basic fact of the Divinity and of Its revelation; hence a poetic and personalized expression of what is known through the general revelation, or a personalization of a power in nature or of a personal attribute. Christianity differs radically from these religions, because by the surplus it asserts, it testifies to an essential increase in the divine revelation. We have in Christianity the full revelation of the Divinity, as well as the manifestation of Its personal character as God has come as a man among men. Christianity is an entirely different religion in so far as the awareness of the nearness of the divine reality is concerned, as the only religion dominated by the awareness of an increase - to the last possible extent - in the divine revelation, without imposing a new element to the general definition of religion. Moreover, Christianity is not a religion of myths. This is due to the fact that God’s presence in the world, as a perceptible and active reality, renders futile all myths: when the divine reality is so close to us and so commanding, there is no longer any place for myths. At the same time there is no attitude which embraces all parts of the Universe with so much love and appreciation as does Christianity, because all are the work of the hands God and the object of His fatherly care.
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