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Umění (Art)
|
2006
|
tom 54
|
nr 5
406-432
EN
The text 'Czechoslovak Students of Architecture at the Bauhaus' is part of a longer work treating students from Czechoslovakia, of Czech, Slovak, German and Jewish-German nationality, who attended this modernist art school. The study tries to fill in the gaps in the history of architecture - the names, dates, designs and buildings of the Czechoslovak students. It therefore does not consider philosophical aspects, the extensive commentary on this school in the Czechoslovak press, or the influences of the Bauhaus on Czech culture generally. The study is based on extensive research in archives in the Czech Republic and abroad, for example: Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau, Bauhaus Archiv Berlin, the Archive of Andrej Sacharov in Moscow, the National Archive of the Czech Republic, the Prague Municipal Archive, the Archive of the Academy of Fine Arts, the Brno Municipal Archive, the Architecture Archive of the National Technical Museum, the Collection of Architecture and Town Planning of the Brno Municipal Museum, etc. The text addresses the multicultural milieu of the interwar Czechoslovak Republic. It adds the names of other students, men and women, to the list of seven students mentioned in earlier literature on the subject. In the broader context, study at this school does not seem as unusual as had previously been assumed. The Czechoslovak students who studied there came from various cultural and social backgrounds. Often, they wanted to supplement a traditional university education. The Bauhaus offered them new, modern pedagogical methods and opportunities to test their skill in practice. The school attracted most students when Hannes Meyer was head. This is as one would expect, given the left-wing orientation of society in the First Republic and the intensive personal contacts with the Czechoslovak avant-garde, in particular Karel Teige, Jaromir Krejcar, and so on. The reason why the students trained at the Bauhaus did not erect more buildings has nothing to do with an inability to adapt or make a name for themselves. (Upon returning, most of them worked in established architectural offices or building firms.) The financial crises of the 1930s were really to blame. Despite this difficult situation, the radically pragmatic, functionalist designs and buildings by Antonin Urban, Josef Hausenblas, Zdenek Rossmann, Václav Zralý and Josef Pohl were far superior to the average work produced at that time. The text also treats the activities of architects/Bauhaus graduates of other nationality on the territory of Czechoslovakia.
EN
A field trial with four grass species was established in the year 1996 in Prague, The stands were one or three times per year cut with the mass removing or one or two times mulched The dry mass yields and the share of the sown species (by weight method) were measured from the third to the sixth year of vegetation. The highest share of the sown species with the slowliest decreasing during the years was at Arrhenatherum elatius (41-72% in the sixth year), Bromus catharticus extincted in the fifth year. The species choose had a higher importance for conserving of the original botanical composition than the way of harvest.
PL
Doświadczenie polowe z czterema gatunkami trawy założono w roku 1996 w Pradze. Stanowiska te były koszone raz lub trzy razy do roku. Biomasa traw była usuwana, względnie stosowana jeden raz lub dwa razy jako mulcz. Plony suchej masy i udział poszczególnych wysianych gatunków określano począwszy od trzeciego do szóstego roku wegetacji (metodą wagową). Arrhenatlherum elatius miał najwyższy i najwolniej malejący udział z pośród wysianych gatunków (41-72% w szóstym roku wegetacji). Bromus catharticus zaniknął w piątym roku. Dobór gatunków był istotniejszy dla zachowania oryginalnego składu botanicznego niż sposób zbioru.
EN
This paper deals with processes occurring in creep-resisting steels during long-term degradation at high temperatures. The mechanical and creep behaviour of these materials is compared to their microstructure. The experimental methods, including mechanical testing, creep tests, and structure measurement - light metallography, SEM/TEM, electron and X-ray diffraction, were used.
EN
Significant attention was paid in all developed countries to the agriculture until the seventies of the last century. It was due to the food deficiency in the post-war period. The period of the intensive agriculture production in the former Czechoslovakia lasted longer, due to the necessity of the high self-sufficiency in food feed and raw materials, produced in the agriculture in the closed system of the socialistic economy. The care for agriculture and soils caused in all countries the boom — golden era of soil science. Not only the basic research aimed at the problems of soil productivity, but especially the soil survey and interpretation of soil maps for agricultural practice was in progress. More sophisticated methods in soil mapping were reflected in the assessment of the soil cover heterogeneity, which is the basis of the regional application of the use and cultivation of agricultural lands. The mentioned concepts have not been developed in the survey of forest soils and natural grasslands because the attention is focused mort the characterization of the soil condition of the forest types or phytocenoses then of soil mapping. This causes some inconsistence in the classification of soils with different uses. In this way the conditions for the unification of the classification of both agricultural and forest soil and the CIS have been created. After the boom of the support of agriculture and pedology, aimed at the rising of the production and soil productivity passed, the production has been champed and pedology has been oriented especially on environmental functions of soils.
PL
Deficyt żywnościowy w latach powojennych oraz zamknięty system ekonomiczny dawnej Czechosłowacji kierowały znaczną uwagę na rozwój rolnictwa i samowystarczalność żywnościową państwa. Zaowocowało to również rozwojem nauk rolniczych, w tym także swoistą „złotą erą" nauk o glebie. Były to nie tylko studia nad produkcyjnością gleb, ale również nad wykorzystaniem i interpretacją map glebowych dla skoordynowanego postępu w produkcji rolniczej. W mniejszym stopniu badania te dotyczyły użytków zielonych i lasów ponieważ tam koncentrowały się one głównie na badaniach fitocenotycznych. Ten gwałtowny rozwój klasyfikacji gleb zarówno na poziomie krajowym jak i międzynarodowym objął więc w szczególności najlepsze gleby użytkowane rolniczo. Powstałe w ten sposób różnice w mapowaniu gleb o różnym użytkowaniu (rolniczym i leśnym) zniwelował system GIS. Sprzyjało temu również zorientowanie badań na przyrodnicze funkcje gleb.
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