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Content available remote Aerobic Capacity of Elderly Women Engaged in Controlled Physical Activity
The objective of this study was to evaluate the aerobic capacity of elderly participants in the family health program at Health Municipal Secretary, who were submitted to a regular program of physical exercise. This experimental study had a sample size of 98 hypertensive elderly women. The sample was divided randomly into an experimental group (EG; n=58, age: 67±6 years) and a control group (CG; n=40; age: 70±6 years). Aerobic capacity was evaluated by a six-minute walking test (WT6). The intervention program was conducted three times a week (Monday, Wednesday and Friday), between 17:00 and 17:45 hours, with an intensity that varied from 55% to 75% of the theoretical maximum heart rate. Student's paired t-tests or Wilcoxon tests were utilised in the intra-group analysis (for homogenous or heterogeneous distributions of the data, respectively). An ANOVA two-way parametric test was used to evaluate the inter-group data followed by the Scheffe post hoc test. A value of p<0.05 was adopted for statistical significance. The results revealed an increase in distance travelled in the EG in the post-test relative to the pretest (Δ= 70.58 m; p<0.0001) and relative to the CG post-test (Δ= 116.58 m; p<0.0001). Furthermore, the CG travelled less distance in the post-test than in the pre-test (Δ= -0.78 m; p=0.003). Therefore, we infer that a walking regimen of controlled intensity improves the distance travelled by elderly women in the WT6 by increasing their aerobic capacity.
Human identity is one of the key issues of a successful existence. It is not possible to avoid answering such questions as: Who am I? How do I understand myself? What do I identify myself with? Those questions demand answers, which are being continuously verified because of the changing individual, social and cultural conditions. Nowadays, one of the main features of reality is a very strong concentration on human body, its appearance, physical attractiveness, and compatibility with socially promoted ideals. The socially popularized model is a young, beautiful, charming and fit body. This is especially true for the body of a woman – a representative of the fair sex. Meeting those social expectations is not an easy task. It requires a lot of effort and sacrifice. While it is not a problem for younger women, it is very difficult and problematic for elderly women. In this article, the selected identity dilemmas experienced by nowadays elderly women will be discussed based on the available research described in Polish and foreign literature. As a result of the aging process of the body, the elderly woman’s body is far from the socially promoted ideal of the female body. This situation affects the self-esteem of elderly women and forces them to redefine themselves and their identity. The studies conducted so far have shown that the elderly women adopt various strategies in order to deal with these dilemmas. This article, inter alia, will discuss those strategies.
Purpose. balance disorders are considered a significant problem in the elderly as they are associated with an increased incidence of falls. In effect, they can lead to numerous injuries, disability, or even death. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between the risk of falling and various factors (morphology, socioeconomic status, physical fitness, and physical activity level) in adult and elderly women. Methods. The study population sample included 149 women aged 47-89 years living in the province of Lower Silesia, Poland. The women were divided into two age groups of younger (n =83,3cage = 59.09 years) and older (n = 66, xage = 70.77 years) participants. Measures included bMI, marital status, and physical activity, physical fitness, and education levels. Statistical analysis included a chi-squared (%2) test, cluster analysis, logistic regression, and correspondence analysis. Results. bMI and physical fitness were strongly correlated with falls: the higher the bMI (overweight or obese) and the lower physical fitness, the greater the risk of falling. The remaining variables showed a weak relationship with falling. Conclusions. The fall risk of women who are overweight or obese or with a low physical fitness level is approximately 2.5 times higher than those with normal and healthy levels of bMI and physical fitness. The presence of both risk factors increased the likelihood of falling.
Content available First signs of elderly gait for women
Background The aims of this study have been twofold: to attempt to reduce the number of spatiotemporal parameters used for describing gait through the factor analysis and component analysis; and to explore the critical age of decline for other gait parameters for healthy women. Material and Methods A total of 106 women (aged ≥ 40 years old (N = 76) and ≤ 31 years old (N = 30)) were evaluated using a pressure-sensitive mat (Zebris Medical System, Tübingen, Germany) for collecting spatiotemporal gait parameters. Results The factor analysis identified 2 factors – labelled Time and Rhythm – that accounted for 72% of the variation in significant free-gait parameters; the principal component analysis identified 4 of these parameters that permit full clinical evaluation of gait quality. No difference was found between the groups in terms of the values of parameters reflecting the temporal nature of gait (Rhythm), namely step time, stride time and cadence, whereas significant differences were found for total double support phase (p < 0.001). Next, seeking evidence of a critical decline in gait, we selected 3 parameters: total double support, stride time and velocity. We concluded that the women taking part in the experiment manifested significant signs of senile gait after the age of 60 years old, with the first symptoms thereof already manifesting themselves after 50 years of age. Conclusions We show that among 26 spatiotemporal parameters that may be used for characterizing gait, at least a half of them may be omitted in the assessment of gait correctness; a finding that may be useful in clinical practice. The finding that the onset of senile gait occurs in the case of women after the age of 60 years old, in turn, may be useful in evaluating the ability for performing types of physical work that mainly require ambulation. Med Pr 2017;68(4):441–448
Introduction: Balance difficulties are one of the factors that have a negative impact on the daily activity of elderly people, which in turn lowers their quality of life. Aim: evaluation of the differences in static and dynamic postural stability in young, elderly and with vision loss women. Material and methods: Eighty-three female volunteers were divided into three groups: 26 young women (20,2 ± 1,75), 26 elderly (68,7 ± 7,55) and 15 pupils with vision loss (19,2±1,78). The following parameters were analysed from Accusway and BBS platforms. Results: A comparison of results with visual inspection between a group of young and elderly women showed statistically significant differences in terms of stabilogram ellipse area and maximal postural s way in ML direction. These two groups differ significantly in all parameters from BBS platform. The greatest differences are observed on a dynamic ground (p<0,001). Women with visual loss achieved the best results of path COP with eyes closed (37,01±6,73), the worst results were observed in a group of elderly women (49,59±21,04). They also did not perform any tasks on a dynamic ground without visual inspection. Women with visual loss achieved significantly worse results than young group. Conclusions: Greater balance control system involvement is observed in dynamic tests, which seem to be more appropriate and can detect disturbances earlier than static tests. Tests with changeable stability of the platform and without visual inspection that differentiate the groups seem to be particularly useful.
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