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The authoress presents the philosophical and methodological assumptions underlying the work of Zygmunt Bauman - one of the most interesting and best-known (if not the single most interesting and best known) Polish sociologists. He has devoted himself to engaged sociology, ie, one that is subject to moral values, though his understanding of morality differs from that in classical Durkeimian sociology. While for Durkheim morality is a social fact, created by society and based in society, for Bauman the source of morality is to be found in the modality of human existence. Morality is the ability to distinguish between good and evil. Bauman calls that which society treats as morality 'ethics'. He believes that behaving in accordance with social norms, established in institutions and human consciousness, very often interferes with the upholding of morality. For Bauman, morality also means responsibility for others, who should be treated the same as oneself. He is a maximalist and would like to transfer moral responsibility to the entire network of social relations, institutions and the whole of society, and even humanity. This possibility depends on the condition of society and the dominant social relations. Bauman presents two types of society: modern and postmodern, which he sometimes also calls a society of 'liquid modernity'. His analyses of each kind of society have nevertheless an autotelic value and demonstrate the values of Bauman's reflections.
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