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The present study was aimed at determining changes in chosen elements of phagocytosis in rabbits infected with 3 antigenic variants of RHD – Hartmannsdorf, Pv97 and 9905, which differed in haemagglutination ability. The animals were tested for phagocytosis parameters, and the results revealed that the examined strains showed the differences. These variations regarded mainly Pv97 strain, as the intensity of the changes were 5 times stronger in comparison to strain Hartmannsdorf and 9905. As all of the strains examined are signified as antigenic variants, we have stated that this feature does not determine their immunological picture. The results suggest the existence of immunological dissimilarities among strains of the RHD virus, which was revealed for the first time in antigenic variants.
The rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus was first described in 1984 in China, where it caused a rabbit plague characterized by an acute course. At present, the disease has spread to rabbits on all continents, and is characterized by morality reaching 100%. Research on the immune response in rabbits after infection by RHD virus strains has so far only been performed by the Deptuła team. In turn, it must be stated that similar research worldwide has been performed in the Chinese centre, yet referring exclusively to rabbits after immunization with inactivated RHD virus. Such research indicates that shortly after immunization, the immunity is coordinated by macrophages and lymphocytes T and B, while farther on the protection against the infection is conditioned by humoral immunity. Deptula's team has investigated 22 strains of RHDV in the aspect of non-specific cellular and humoral immunity, as well as specific cellular and humoral immunity including 3 French strains (FR-1, Fr-2, 9905RHDVa), 10 Polish strains (K-l, Kr-1, KGM, SGM, MAŁ, BLA, PD, GSK, Ż, ŻD), 4 German strains (Hagenow, Frankfurt, Triptis, Hartmannsdorf), 3 Italian strains (BS89-reference strain, Vt97, PV97), 1 English strain (Rainham), and 1 Spanish strain (Asturias). The strains were analyzed in the aspect of such parameters as capacity of adherence and absorption of PMN cells, PMN cell cidal property measured with spontaneous, stimulated, and spectrophotometric NBT test, stimulation index and PMN metabolic activity coefficient; and MPO activity, as well as concentration and activity of LZM. Also, the number was marked of lymphocytes T CD5+, Th with receptor CD4+, Tc/Ts with receptor CD8+, and the number of lymphocytes with receptor CD25+, as well as the percentage of lymphocytes B (IgM). The research indicates the presence of immunogroups within the RHD virus. Assessment of pathogenicity of the RHD virus is actually performed based on the mortality rate in rabbits infected with the virus, which is dictated by the fact that the virus has so far not been obtained in vitro. Niedźwiedzka et al. divided the 10 analyzed strains into strains with high pathogenicity with mortality of 90-100%, up to 36/48 hour of the study (BS89, Hagenow, Rainham, Frankfart, Asturias, Triptis, Hartmannsdorf, Pv97, 9905RHDVa), and strains with lower pathogenicity with mortality of 30% up to 36/48h (Vt97). In turn, Tokarz-Deptuła divided the 10 analyzed strains of the RHDV (including 8 Polish and 2 French) into strains with mortality of 80-100% (Fr-2, ŻD, GSK, SGM, Fr-1, Kr-1, MAL), strains with mortality of 60-65% (KGM, BLA), and strains with mortality below 60% (PD). The aim of our study was to record changes to parameters of non-specific cellular immunity (capacity of adherence and absorption of PMN cells, cidal capacity of PMN cells measured with spontaneous NBT test, stimulated and spectrophotometric, and stimulation index and metabolic activity ratio of PMN cells) in rabbits experimentally infected with 4 haemagglutinogenic Czech strains of the RHD virus: CAMPV-351 (reference strain), CAMP-561, CAMPV-562, and CAMPV-558, with different pathogenicity; which strains have not yet been analyzed in this respect. The assessment of pathogenicity of the analyzed strains of the RHDV was performed on the basis of mortality rate among rabbits infected with these strains. On the basis of the number and duration of changes to analyzed parameters of non-specific cellular immunity, the 4 analyzed Czech strains are determined to differentiate in the aspect of immunogenicity into three groups. The first group is formed by the most immunogenic reference strain CAMPV-351, the second - by two medium-immunogenic strains - CAMPV-561 and CAMPV-558, whereas the third one - by the least immunogenic strain CAMPV- 562. The results obtained in the area of pathogenicity are not reflected in the division of the analyzed Czech strains according to their immunogenicity.
The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of Ichtio Hexan (a complex blend of Allium sativum extract, Chelidonium majus extract, Origanum vulgare extract, carvacrol and cinnamic aldehyde) for the control of spironucleosis (hexamitosis) in rainbow trout fingerlings. For this purpose, three groups of rainbow trout naturally infected with S. salmonis were fed diets containing either no Ichtio Hexan or supplemented with Ichtio Hexan at a rate of 0.1 ml/kg bw (group 1) or 1 ml/kg bw (group 2) for 38 days. During this period mortalities were recorded and the dead fish were examined to confirm the isolations of S. salmonis. At the end of the experiment the fish were sacrificed, individually weighed and measured, their livers removed and weighed. In order to determine the prevalence and intensity of infection the intestinal contents were examined. The results of the present study showed that Ichtio Hexan in an amount of 0.1 ml/kg bw considerably reduced mortality caused by S. salmonis in rainbow trout fingerlings. The number of S. salmonis trophozoites in the digestive tract after administration of Ichtio Hexan at this dose for 38 days was significantly reduced and limited only to the posterior part of the intestine. On the other hand, in the 1 ml/kg bw fed group none of the fish were infected and the gain in the body weight was significantly increased; however, the mortality rate was similar to the control group. The experimental groups did not differ significantly from each other with regards to the condition factor and hepatosomatic index. Considering the above findings, Ichtio Hexan at a dose of 0.1 ml/kg bw can be successfully used in rainbow trout farms to reduce the mortality rate in S. salmonis infected fish.
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of dietary herbal extracts derived from garlic (Allium sativum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), oregano (Origanum vulgare), nettle (Urtica dioica), purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea), or thyme (Thymus vulgaris) on the performance indices and oocyst output in broilers experimentally infected with 190 000 oocysts of Eimeria spp. on day 12 of age. A total of 400 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks was randomly allocated into 10 groups with 5 replicates (cages) of 8 chickens per replicate. Two of the groups, one challenged and the other not, were given a basal maize-soyabean meal diet without any additives; one of the challenged groups was administered a basal diet with the coccidiostat diclazuril (1 mg · kg−1) and the remaining birds of the infected groups were given a diet supplemented with one of the tested herbal extracts at a level of 750 mg · kg−1. Throughout the 42 days of the experiment, performance parameters, mortality, oocyst output, and slaughter indices were recorded. Among the tested herbal extracts, in the first rearing period (9 d post infection), only garlic and sage extracts alleviated the negative effect of infection, as shown by the increase in body weight gain to the level recorded in the coccidiostat-supplemented group and, in the case of garlic extract, by lower mortality. In the second and entire experimental period, dietary supplementation with the herbal extracts improved the growth performance of infected chickens to the level obtained in the groups infected and fed the coccidiostat or the uninfected and unsupplemented ones, but there was no positive effect of extracts on oocyst output. It is concluded that the herbal extracts tested in the current study do not prevent coccidiosis induced by high-pathogenic field Eimeria spp., although they have a beneficial effect on recovery after infection, which was expressed by the favourable impact on compensatory growth and, thus, on the final performance indices.
Studies were carried out in year 2014 during the pasture period (from April to October) in Warmia and Mazury Region. Fecal samples were taken from cold- and warmblood horses from individual and agrotouristic farms with the different housing, feeding and pasture- care practices. Total of 512 horses were examined (320 mares, 170 geldings and 22 stallions). In the group of 185 horses from individual farms, 119 animals (64.3%) were infected with gastro-intestinal parasites. Among the 372 horses from agrotouristic farms 169 (51.7%) were infected with parasites. Most of the animals expelled the eggs of Cyathostominae. In some individuals occurred eggs of Strongylus spp., Parascaris equorum, Strongyloides westeri and tapeworm of Anoplocephala. The number of infected horses from agrotouristic farms was lower than from individual farms, probably due to more regular deworming (usually 2 times a year) and bigger care paid to cleaning pastures.
Buxtonellosis is a disease caused by the ciliated protozoan Buxtonella sulcata (Jameson, 1926). B. sulcata is a common protozoan of ruminants and may result in subclinical infection or clinical disease including diarrhea. This study examined the prevalence of B. sulcata in cattle from Sanadaj province, Iran. Faecal samples were collected from cattle in the province from May 2013 to June 2014. A total of 217 cattle were selected randomly according to the age, sex, health, management system and season. In total, 99 cattle (45.63%) were found to be infected with B. sulcata. In adults, prevalence of B. sulcata infection (51.64%) was higher than calves (28.58%) and young cattle (40.55%). The prevalence of B. sulcata infection was also found to be higher in female (47.32%) than male (38.46) cattle. B. sulcata infection was significantly (p<0.05) higher in poor health cattle (body condition and weight) (79.54%) than healthy cattle (24.47%). This study demonstrates that cattle are highly susceptible to B. sulcata infection under a variety of housing and environmental conditions in this region of Iran. The study also demonstrates a significant effect of infection on cattle health.
Content available Infections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato
It is justified to systematically monitor the number of those infected with Lyme disease in European countries and conduct the research on spreading of genospecies B. burgdorferi s.l. in animal reservoirs and vectors. Moreover, it is essential to take action for increasing the society’s awareness of tick-borne diseases prophylaxis. It is very important due to the observed increase in the number and activeness of ticks which leads to the increased risk of infection with spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and other pathogens transmitted by these vectors.
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