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Introduction. Distance running performance is a simple function of developing high speeds and maintaining this speed as long as possible. Thus a correct running technique becomes an important component of performance. Technique is effective if the competitor can reach a better performance result with the same or lower energy consumption. The purpose of this investigation was to examine a six weeks application explosive type strength training on lower extremities power and maximum speed performance improvement in order to facilitate running technique in sub-elite male middle-distance runner. Material and methods. A sub-elite runner performed twice a week special exercises and running drills. He completed a pre and post-training jumping (SJ, CMJ, standing long jump, standing five jump) and speed (20 m from standing and flying start) field tests. For kinematical analysis, a video (SIMI Motion System) of a 10 m sprint from a 20 m flying start was collected. Results. Improvement occurred in all measurements but strong changes were evident in the 10 m from 20 flying start and in stride frequency from 3.90 to 4.01 Hz, due to decreasing of ground contact time from 160 to 156 ms. No strong evidence in the participant's running technique changes. Conclusion. This proved that six weeks of dynamic type strength program seems to improve neuromuscular characteristics of running speed and explosive power and no changes in running technique.
Content available remote Effect of Additional Load on Power Output during Drop Jump Training
Plyometrics can be an effective way of improving power performance in many sports. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of additional loading on power during drop jump training. Forty-two untrained physical education students with plyometric training background participated in a six-week training 3 times a week. Subjects were randomized to one of three training groups: without (FREE) and with a weight vest (VEST; 5% body weight), and a control group (CON). Pretraining and post-training measures of concentric peak power (PP), force (Fpp) and velocity (υPP) at peak power and, in addition, time between eccentric and concentric peak power (tPPEC) were analyzed in a countermovement jump (CMJ) and a drop jump (DJ) from a height of 0.3 m. The FREE and VEST groups considerably improved PP in CMJ (p < 0.05), but υPP significantly increased (p < 0.05) and tPPEC significantly decreased (p < 0.05) only in the FREE group. The enhancement of PP and υPP was only demonstrated by the FREE group in DJ. The FREE group significantly decreased (p < 0.05) and the VEST group significantly increased (p < 0.05) tPPEC in DJ. It can be concluded that using additional load during drop jump training does not produce superior gains in power output when compared to a traditional drop jump training program.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a short-term in-season plyometric training program on power, agility and knee extensor strength. Male soccer players from a third league team were assigned into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group, beside its regular soccer training sessions, performed a periodized plyometric training program for six weeks. The program included two training sessions per week, and maximal intensity unilateral and bilateral plyometric exercises (total of 40 - 100 foot contacts/session) were executed. Controls participated only in the same soccer training routine, and did not perform plyometrics. Depth vertical jump height, agility (Illinois Agility Test, T Agility Test) and maximal voluntary isometric torque in knee extensors using Multicont II dynamometer were evaluated before and after the experiment. In the experimental group small but significant improvements were found in both agility tests, while depth jump height and isometric torque increments were greater. The control group did not improve in any of the measures. Results of the study indicate that plyometric training consisting of high impact unilateral and bilateral exercises induced remarkable improvements in lower extremity power and maximal knee extensor strength, and smaller improvements in soccer-specific agility. Therefore, it is concluded that short-term plyometric training should be incorporated in the in-season preparation of lower level players to improve specific performance in soccer.
Background: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of a six-week plyometric high and low-intensity training on the explosive power of lower limbs in volleyball players. Material/Methods: The research was conducted on a sample of 30 volunteers of the Sports Club at Gdansk University of Technology in Gdansk. Before the experiment, the players were divided into two homogeneous groups. After two weeks of an introductory common stage, each group followed a plyometric regime of different intensity. The results showed that the high-intensity program was more efficient than the low-intensity program in developing the explosive power in the volleyball players. Results: The largest significant improvement was observed for the vertical jump with arm swing (11% in HIJG and 3.8% in LISG). The strongest correlations were registered for the maximal power and the total mechanical work obtained in the Wingate test (r=0.83), and the power of jumps during attacks and blocks (r=0.78). Conclusions: The experiment confirmed high effectiveness of the training loads applied in the experiment, in particular in the high-intensity program.
Content available remote Effects of a Low-Load Gluteal Warm-Up on Explosive Jump Performance
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a low-load gluteal warm-up protocol on countermovement and squat jump performance. Research by Crow et al. (2012) found that a low-load gluteal warm-up could be effective in enhancing peak power output during a countermovement jump. Eleven subjects performed countermovement and squat jumps before and after the gluteal warm-up protocol. Both jumps were examined in separate testing sessions and performed 30 seconds, and 2, 4, 6 & 8 minutes post warm-up. Height jumped and peak ground reaction force were the dependent variables examined in both jumps, with 6 additional variables related to fast force production being examined in the squat jump only. All jumps were performed on a force platform (AMTI OR6-5). Repeated measures analysis of variance found a number of significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between baseline and post warm-up scores. Height jumped decreased significantly in both jumps at all rest intervals excluding 8 minutes. Improvement was seen in 7 of the 8 recorded SJ variables at the 8 minute interval. Five of these improvements were deemed statistically significant, namely time to peak GRF (43.0%), and time to the maximum rate of force development (65.7%) significantly decreased, while starting strength (63.4%), change of force in first 100 ms of contraction (49.1%) and speed strength (43.6%) significantly increased. The results indicate that a gluteal warm-up can enhance force production in squat jumps performed after 8 minutes recovery. Future research in this area should include additional warm-up intervention groups for comparative reasons.
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