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Filozofia (Philosophy)
tom 76
nr 1
59 – 71
This article focuses on a crucial topic of epistemology in French philosopher Gaston Bachelard: epistemological obstacle. Through bachelardian psychanalysis of scientific mind and its neuroses the author puts a question, if a term of “the guardian of threshold”, used by phenomenological psychotherapy based by Robert Desoille within a method of daydreaming, is or is not narrative reference to analytical thinking about the meaning of epistemological obstacle, which stops scientific knowledge in its progress. The author develops the issue of Bachelard’s rationalism through his own genuine phenomenology, or anthropology of studying man as a man of “twenty-four hours”, but also through Bachelard’s analyses of epistemological obstacle described in his The Formation of the Scientific Mind (originally from year 1938). Between philosophy of reached erudition (by Bachelard own words, a senile state of science) and philosophy, which permanently visits a school, learns and reorganises its knowledge (youth of science) is a dialectical motion of historical epistemology. The science opened to consciousness of its own errors in ways, by which it reaches its knowledge, is for Bachelard materialized in the imagination of overcoming an obstacle, for example such obstacle, which is described by image of the guardian of threshold.
This article provides an overview of the historical and philosophical contexts from which G. Bachelard's concept of 'phenomenotechnique' originated. It shows why phenomenotechnique is crucial for science studies. By incorporating the concept of phenomenotechnique into Hacking's and Galison's models of science, the authoress argues that we can avoid the radicalism of both while preventing the analysis of scientific practices from collapsing into the interpretive frames mandated by social constructivists.
The paper shows the development of Gaston Bachelard's thought from his early writings to later meditations on daydreams. Bachelard's 'scientific contribution' is characterized by his conception of applied rationalism, and his conviction that a true science must be justified by a rectification process. Theoretical rationalization must be necessarily applied in practice. Similar to an open science, the philosophy of science is open if it is able to say 'no' to old scientific and philosophical experience. This 'no' is not final but it is a sign of openness. Bachelard appears to be the predecessor of Popper's fallibilism. The 'second part' of Bachelardian philosophy concentrates on daydreams or reveries as a profound basis of the scientific knowledge. Our diurnal daydreams are not nocturnal dreams which are the subject of the psychoanalytical research. Daydreaming is a process of our imagination, working with 'oneiric' images. A psychoanalyst investigates the source of nocturnal dreams: our unconsciousness, our relations to the world and other people, etc. This is the horizontal point of view. The phenomenology leads us, according to Bachelard, to a different approach to 'oneiric' images - to a vertical and subjective point of view. The interpretation oriented on sources is transformed by daydreaming flowing from these very sources. The education is a convoluted process oscillating between an exact science and a subjective reverie.
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