The key 3-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-2-oxo-2H,5H-pyrano[3,2-c]chromen-5-yl acetates 3 were synthesized in high yields by cyclocondensation of 4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-carbaldehydes 1 with coumarin-3-acetic acids 2 under mild conditions. The reaction pathway involves aldol condensation and subsequent intramolecular lactonization to afford 2-oxo-2H,5H-pyrano[3,2-c]chromene skeleton 3. Further treatment of acetates 3 with alcohols, water or nitrogen containing compounds led to 5-alkoxy-, 5-hydroxy- or 5-acylamino-2H,5H-pyrano[3,2-c]chromen-2-ones 4-6 via nucleophilic substitution of acetyloxy group at C-5. Acetates and hydroxyl derivatives 3 and 5 undergo facile rearrangement in an acid medium yielding 5-hydroxypyrano[2,3-b]chromen-2(10aH)-ones 7. [...] Twelve prepared compounds were evaluated on their antineoplastic activities on 60 human tumour cell line panels in NCI USA. The obtained biological results confirmed that 3-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-2H,5H-pyrano[3,2-c]chromen-2-one represents a new leading skeleton suitable for further antitumour activity study.