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The main aim of this paper is to explain how one can talk about information as functioning ontologically within the mind. From the cybernetic point of view, coding is essential to such functioning-transforming information from one system of symbols of signs into another. Information coding takes place within the body (brain), in human use of instruments and tools, as well as in the manifold relations between humans and the environment. Using the work of Arbib, Gibson, Bateson and Dennett, this paper present a model of the manifold functioning of information within the human mind, with particular stress placed upon its significance for practical-cognitive behavior.
This article presents two methods of digitisation, digital data processing and digital localisation applied in field ethnography. The Atlas.ti tool was used as an example of analyses of digitised textual, numerical, audio and visual data for subsequent coding in programmes (CAQDAS). The authors focus on coding and the creation of coding sheets. Through the examples from research conducted in the Northern Malohont region, they present the possibilities and limits of the use of coding in computer interfaces. The links between ethnographic findings and field localisation are presented through the application of geographical information systems (GIS). Cultural configurations and diffusions are illustrated at precise geographic locations of the region being explored. Many of the current limitations in the dissemination of these techniques can be overcome by a wider use of digital technologies, the creation of common digital ethnographic databases and by projects support.
This article shows theoretical and practical implications of a research style called Grounded Theory. The paper documents the process of generating theory from qualitative data. The emphasis is put on diverse levels of abstraction experienced by a researcher while analyzing data. An everyday item has been used to help to demonstrate the steps of reflection while executing qualitative analysis. The item is a cemetery bag - an old fashioned brownish bag containing things that attach significance. Therefore, it becomes a signifier for ageing, heterosexuality and gender roles. The bag and the thoughts it triggers help researchers to reflect on their hidden coding mechanisms, which play a vital part in qualitative research. The article concludes with showing several steps in the coding process of Grounded Theory, along with how categories find their way into a paradigmatic model.
The study deals with two types of artistic communication. The description of the first type is based on Ferdinand de Saussure's model of communication. This type presupposes identical codes of the sender and the addressee, what makes decreasing of the information noise in the communication possible. On one hand, the scale of the information noise is diminished, but on the other hand, in this type of communication the view of the event is lost. The second type of communication is based on (a smaller or larger) disproportion between the sender and the addressee. The disproportion results in the growing information noise. In this case, the transmission of meanings is secondary, since the process of signification becomes the primary one. In the artistic creativity based on the second type of communication, the event always precedes the structure.
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