Poland and Spain, despite their location on opposite outskirts of the European Union, are very often compared with each other. The reason for it is not only their similar size and population, but also, in some respects, their similar situation after the Second World War and their experiences in the process of their “return to Europe”. In their efforts to join the European Community, both countries had problems with similar negotiation areas. The possibility of benefiting from the Union’s funds, especially the structural funds, is an exceptionally important advantage they gain from the membership in the EU. Finally, during the work over the project of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, Poland and Spain took at first similar stands on many aspects. On the other hand, there are many serious differences between these countries, which mainly concern often opposite national interests in the European Union, but also their foreign policies. Therefore, a question should be asked, whether comparing Poland with Spain on the European arena is justifiable? The present article is an attempt to answer this question.