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EN
The SPE teacher is a part of developmentally appropriate physical education. In other words it is a physical activity that is adapted and modified to be appropriate for the person with a disability. The specialization in Adapted Physical Education in Wroclaw University School of Physical Education was established in 1997. This article reports data drawn from a survey of students’ views about their motivation to work with children with disabilities. The students were recruited from adapted physical education specialization provided by the University. The data were used to constitute six groups of the motives of adapted physical education students. The findings showed that the largest group of female students, more than 30 percent, decided to study adapted physical education because they “want to help others”. The largest groups of male students have chosen the specialization as a way of self-realization, more than 35 percent.
EN
The civilizational changes experienced by everyone along with the pandemic, which prevents open relations with the world and other people, on the one hand, demobilizes and induces states of apprehension and apathy, and on the other, the pursuit of new solutions and ways of coping. The challenge a child or a young person faces is unimaginably more complex than that faced by an adult. In a lock-down situation, the possibility of establishing contact or building relations with the world is very often reduced to a minimum. Therefore, the author’s version of “ Relaxation in Relationship” is a proposal of active and creative relaxation, when a parent, teacher, or therapist enters into a relaxation dialogue with the child about what is essential for the child at a given moment. Not being able to predict the child’s response fully, the facilitator should be prepared to remain in an open relationship and maintain it for the duration of the session. In this kind of work, it is suggested that during the “relaxation in the relationship,” compared to the traditional relaxation session, a more complex way of intervening is used, where not only verbal instructions are used, but also movement, touch, and sharing of emotions, thoughts, and imagination.
PL
Doświadczane przez wszystkich zmiany cywilizacyjne związane również z pandemią, która uniemożliwia otwarte relacje ze światem oraz innymi osobami, z jednej strony demobilizuje oraz wywołuje stany zatrzymania i apatii, a z drugiej, poszukiwania nowych rozwiązań oraz sposobów radzenia sobie. Wyzwanie, przed którym stoi dziecko czy młody człowiek jest niewyobrażalnie trudniejsze od tego, które dotyka osobę dorosłą. W sytuacji lock-downu bardzo często pozostaje do minimum ograniczona możliwość nawiązywania kontaktu czy budowania relacji ze światem. Dlatego zaprezentowana autorska wersja „Relaksacji w relacji” jest propozycją relaksacji aktywnej i kreatywnej, kiedy rodzic, nauczyciel czy terapeuta podejmuje relaksacyjny dialog z dzieckiem dotyczący tego, co dla dziecka jest, w danej chwili, ważne. Nie mogąc do końca przewidzieć reakcji dziecka, prowadzący powinien być przygotowany na pozostawanie w otwartej relacji i ją utrzymać przez czas sesji. W tego rodzaju pracy sugeruje się, aby podczas „relaksacji w relacji” (w porównaniu do tradycyjnej sesji relaksacyjnej) ingerować w sposób bardziej kompleksowy, gdzie stosowane są nie tylko werbalne instrukcje, ale też ruch, dotyk czy dzielenie się emocjami, myślami czy wyobrażeniami.
EN
With reference to the arena in the ancient Greek ritual theater, the Roman circus, or later the medieval arena as the venue of tournaments of knights, the author recalls the changeability of social functions of public spectacles. Together with the expansion of corporeality and the spirit of competition that started at the beginning of the 20th century, when a sports arena became a place of testing human physical possibilities, also the idea of a modern football stadium is born. The aim of this paper is to synthesize psychosocial aspects of Polish fans’ participation in UEFA EURO 2012. In his paper of a theoretical character the author raises three specific questions regarding the reception of the European Football Championships, the greatest sports event ever held in Poland. Were football matches not changed into a manifestation of the need for ludic affiliation and social emotions which cannot find other means of expression? Were the great expectations not a kind of therapy to compensate for national complaints? And did Poland’s matches against certain national teams become a surrogate method to eliminate negative emotions by referring to the metaphor of pseudo-patriotic war against historical enemies? Were the Polish fans’ expectations for their team’s success not too high, taking into consideration the football abilities of the team? The author analyzed fans’ reactions in terms of the assumptions of crowd psychology established by Le Bon. He proves that, on the one hand, fans wanted to demonstrate Europe they were not worse than others and their team could win, too. On the other hand, fans wanted to have much fun regardless of the result, that is to see how it was to be loyal fans of their favorite team. There is also an alarming trend in the attitudes assumed by Polish fans who underline the patriotic and nationalistic context.
EN
The objective of this paper was to present an original project titled “Sports 2014 – Multifactorial Environmental Model”, designed to reinforce positive behavior and create a sense of community among urban youth. It evolved together with the subsequent phases of an urban health promotion program that began in 1994 in Wrocław, Poland. However, the basis of this model was in creating a health promotion initiative that included elements of the Mandala model of health, an ecological model, and the ‘Your Neighborhood’s Coach’ health promotion and at-risk prevention program, begun in 2003 by the Sports Department of the City of Wrocław and continued to this day. This type of initiative was designed to include measures typical of a prevention program while also promoting an active lifestyle through constructive leisure activities. Its guiding philosophy was the ‘get involved’ rather than ‘dissuade from’ approach, which has found popularity in programs of a similar nature across the world. The presented “Multifactorial Environmental Model” is addressed to active counselors, coaches, psychologists, health promotion figureheads, and policymakers whose goal is to reduce negative and anti-social behavior in today’s youth. It should also find value among the pedagogical community of physical education institutions, as the presented work may serve as a source of experience when deciding on any significant changes in the education of future physical education teachers, coaches, and recreation instructors working with adolescents.
PL
Ekstremalne narciarstwo staje się coraz popularniejsze. W porównaniu z tradycyjnym narciarstwem jest specjalnie ukierunkowane na doświadczanie przez zawodników swoistego rodzaju emocji oraz poczucia ryzyka. Również uprawianie tego rodzaju sportu daje więcej wrażeń niż tradycyjne rekreacyjne narciarstwo. W założeniu teoretycznym sam sport ekstremalny oraz uczestnicy aktywności sportowej określanej jako ekstremalna biorą pod uwagę ryzyko oraz gotowość na doświadczanie stresu. W niniejszym artykule autorzy porównują radzenie sobie ze stresem wśród dwóch grup narciarzy („ekstremalnych” i „rekreacyjnych”). Badanych było 54 narciarzy płci męskiej w wieku 30–45 lat z minimum 15-letnim narciarskim doświadczeniem. Zastosowane zostały wywiad z zawodnikami odnoszący się do preferowanego stylu życia oraz Kwestionariusz COPE – Wielowymiarowego Inwentarza do Pomiaru Radzenia Sobie ze Stresem (autorstwa C.S. Carvera, M.F. Scheiera, J.K. Weintrauba) w celu ustalenia dominujących stylów radzenia sobie ze stresem (skoncentrowane na celach, koncentracja na emocjach oraz zachowania unikowe). Rezultaty badań wskazują, że wśród wszystkich narciarzy dominuje aktywny styl radzenia sobie ze stresem skoncentrowany na celu, jednak w porównaniu do narciarzy rekreacyjnych wyższe wyniki są wśród narciarzy ekstremalnych. Różnica jest istotna statycznie, na poziomie 0,05.
EN
Extreme skiing is growing in popularity. This kind of sport is designed to expose athletes to greater thrills and risks than are found in traditional sporting activities. Also practicing this sport gives you more emotional experience in extreme than the traditional cultivation of recreational skiing activities. Theoretical perspectives on extreme sports and extreme sport participants have assumed that participation is about risk‐taking and stress exposure. In this paper we compare style of stress coping among two groups of skiers (“extreme” and “recreational”). We have examined the group of 54 male skiers ages 30 to 45 years with minimum 15 years of skiing experience). They were applied interview with the skiers relating to the preferred lifestyle and Questionnaire COPE – a Multidimensional Coping Inventory (Carver, C.S., Scheier, M.F., & Weintraub, J.K.) in order to determine the dominant styles of coping with stress (problem-focused coping, seeking of emotional support and denial-focused coping). Results indicate that active style of coping dominated in the both groups, but the extreme skiers score higher the skiers from recreational group. The difference is on significance level of 0.05. Miejsce wydania:
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Content available remote Psychophysical motivational effects of music on competitive swimming
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EN
Background: The aim of the study was to assess changes in motivation levels in the subjects who were provided with motivational music (independent variable). The additional aim was to establish differences between two study groups in terms of swimming effectiveness. Material/Methods: The employed research method relied on a laboratory experiment. The study included 8 subjects involved in swimming training. They were divided into two groups - control (C) and experimental (E) ones. The study consisted of three trials during which the subjects swam a distance of 50m front crawl with maximum velocity. In the first trial neither of the groups had an independent variable. In trials two and three group C swam the distance listening to white noise. Group E received motivational music of choice (independent variable). Before and after the trials the subjects’ motivation was assessed by means of the MOTO scale. Results: The motivation level assessed by means of the MOTO scale revealed no statistically significant differences in the groups. The Mann-Whitney U Test showed no statistically significant differences between the study groups in terms of their times over 50 m. Conclusions: Motivational music which the swimmers received when swimming had no impact on an increased level of the swimmers’ motivation and swimming effectiveness.
EN
Purpose. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of dynamic Surya Namaskar (sun salutations) on the differential chest circumference of selected physical education students at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Basic procedures. The subjects for this study were selected from the Department of Physical Education at Banaras Hindu University. A total of 20 male subjects were selected and used as one practicing group. Dynamic Surya Namaskar was considered the independent variable and differential chest circumference was considered the dependent variable. The test was for differential chest circumference. The Repeated Measures Design was used for this study. Only one group of 20 participants was created. Tests were administered at regular intervals of two weeks. The tests started four weeks prior to the dynamic Surya Namaskar (DSN) treatment and took place every two weeks, three times. Thereafter, tests took place every two weeks during the treatment and after the completion of the treatment, they were continued for the following four-week period. Main findings. To determine the effect of dynamic Surya Namaskar on physiological and anthropometric variables of selected physical education students at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, one way ANOVA was used at .05 level of significance. Conclusions. In relation to differential chest circumference, a significant (p < 0.05) effect of dynamic Surya Namaskar was found.
EN
The article looks at the questions related to health education, prevention and health promotion programs in the Polish schools. The paper begins with a rationale for more active involvement in health‑promoting activities. The first section presents shortcomings in the implementation of programs concerning health education, as well as low effectiveness of school prevention programs designed to counteract risk behaviour and obstacles to health promotion in schools. Next, the obstacles to effective implementation of health‑related activities are covered. In the final section, the necessity of integration of education and health policies is discussed.
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EN
This article reports data drawn from a survey of students’ views about their future teacher role. The students were recruited from adapted physical education specialization provided by the University School of Physical Education. The data are used to construct four types of role of adapted physical education teachers. The typology of role which has implications for the range and type of professional development opportunities which might be made available to teachers. The findings show that the majority of students found a holistic type as the most appropriate and they chose the type of teaching which took them closer to the person. As part of the study the authors have independently developed the Model of Roles of APE Teachers (APEROLE) over seven years of teaching practice.
EN
Introduction: In Wroclaw experiment investigated whether and to what extent participation in a four-day short courses relaxation affects the experience of pain and whether there is a difference in the experience of pain in participants of trophotropic and ergotropic relaxation activities. Material and methods: Participants according to preferences of strategy of how to cope with pain were assigned to the two groups. Ergotropic relaxation group was represented at trial by a "movement meditation" concern practice-oriented activity of the body and body work. Trophotropic relaxation group was represented at trial by "meditation seat" and focus more on the content of consciousness while maintaining the passivity of the body. The experiment was performed in the Psychology Unit (University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw) in the relaxation room. Fourteen people took part in this research (10 women and 4 men in the age between 35-55). During experiment all individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire CSQ (Coping Strategies Questionnaire) A.C. Rosenstiel'a and F.J. Keefe'go and VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) as a pain scale. VAS scale was used before (pre-test) and after (post-test) relaxation training. Results: Both groups, ergotropic as well as trophotropic, reduced experience of pain. After relaxation session (post-test) according to VAS scale the mean score of the ergotropic relaxation group was 2,7 and for trophotropic group - 3,8. It was statistically significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions: The experiment showed that the technique of dynamic relaxation was more effective in reducing pain. Perhaps the choice of relaxation techniques aimed at changing the perception of discomfort, we should take into account the ability of how to cope and reduce pain. Perhaps this is the most important factor when choosing a specific relaxation technique
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EN
Purpose. A number of mental and physical benefits arise from leading an active lifestyle. Many forms of therapies make use of physical activity to reinforce rehabilitation as well as improve the condition of the body and mind. It is in this way that an individual can improve their well-being through cleansing the body of negative emotions and seek inner harmony, which is one of the most important features of mental health. However, the question arises whether all forms of physical activity improve the emotional state of an individual in the same way. A qualitative change in mood may be in fact related to the methodical factors present in physical activity (the type of exercise, the training method or its intensity and frequency) but also an instructor's personality, the age and gender of the participant as well as their physical fitness and motor skills, the subject's current social and mental state, environmental factors or other factors related to everyday life such as work, family, etc. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in mood of physically active and highly fit people, aged 22-25 years, after various forms of physical activity and with different training methodologies. Methods. The Mood Adjective Check List (UMACL) was administered to 84 students before and after completing a course in a number of physical activities. Statistical methods were then applied to the results to measure the size of the differences and for any statistical significance. Results. The results found that regardless of the form of physical activity or class duration, there was a positive change in the mood of participants. Differences in size of the changes, when compared to the forms of physical activity and gender, were not found. Conclusions. The improvement in mood of fit and regularly physically active adults is observed regardless what form of physical activity is practiced.
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