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This paper focuses on the distinction between luxury and necessary borrowings from English (i.e. Anglicisms) and the relationship between these borrowings, the domains in which they are used and their pronunciation and orthography. I put forward a hypothesis that the ratio of luxury and necessary borrowings differs within different domains and that this has an impact on the pronunciation and orthography of the borrowings; I tested this hypothesis by analysing 500 Anglicisms. The results confirm that (1) there is a difference in the distribution of luxury or necessary Anglicisms within different domains and (2) necessary Anglicisms are more often pronounced according to their original orthography than luxury Anglicisms. However, I also detected a strong association between the period in which Anglicisms were borrowed and the manner in which they were adopted; therefore, it was not possible to identify a direct link between the type of borrowing and pronunciation, and further research is required to confirm the above hypothesis
The article is concerned with the graphic aspect of acronym usage in standard written Czech. It focuses on the abbreviations which can be pronounced not only when spelled out, but also as a single unit. The survey examines the competition of various acronyms’ declension forms in particular case positions, both in the case of abbreviations ending with a consonant (type ČEZ) and those ending with a vowel (types UNESCO and IKEA) for which contemporary handbooks and linguistic description allow the addition of case endings only in spoken Czech. The study shows that some types of acronyms also tend to be declined in standard written Czech contexts and analyzes the tension between preserving the abbreviation’s graphic integrity and treating it as an ordinary word written in lower case form. The results lead to the adjustment of some existing statements on acronyms.
The first part of this paper tries to contribute to the illustration of the formal language literacy presented by sample of text written by young Roma people. Those people attend special schools and their education program is limited comparing to the ordinary schools. The paper introduces new term — the stigmatize error/mistake. The second part of the presented paper illustrates main reasons of those mistakes (sociocultural, language, educational) and tries to suggest some solutions for school training. It can be orthography practicing, focus on phonetics, relations between speaking and writing, communication practices, vocabulary practicing, etc. The paper shows examples taken from databank ROMi, which was constructed as a sample of Czech language spoken/written by young Roma people.
This paper examines the development of capitalization in early printed Czech New Testaments. The method employed was the same as in previous studies by Fidlerová, Dittmann and Vladimírová, who examined the majuscules in Old Czech Bibles. The research presented aimed to to confirm and further develop their results on the basis of several separately published New Testaments. The chosen editions were analysed on the lexical level. The percentage of capitals in various categories of substantives, adjectives and numerals was calculated. The increased usage of majuscules in the Melantrich prints was confirmed. Blahoslav’s New Testament was similar to the pre-Melantrich editions.
Content available remote Naše řeč v roce 1817
The text is devoted not to the journal Naše řeč [Our Speech], but to "our speech", i.e. Czech, as mirrored in a handbook of Czech orthography (Hanka, 1817). This pamphlet was the initial part of the conflict between “iotists” (followers of Dobrovský and Hanka’s Czech orthography reform) and "ypsilonists" (their conservative opponents). Part (1) outlines the historical context of Pravopis český [Czech Orthography] from 1817 and its contents. Part (2) deals with the last part of Hanka’s pamphlet - the list of words for which speakers of Czech had to deal with the problematic transition from the spoken to the written form. Hanka recorded many orthographically incorrect forms of the words. An unintended result of his work was a kind of "recording" of contemporary spoken Czech (the most frequent examples of the recorded phenomena were cluster reduction, voicing assimilation and articulatory assimilation). Part (3) considers the theoretical importance of this list as a unique document of the Czech from Hanka’s time. The list reveals much about the actual pronunciation of Czech from that period, as well as the difficulties connected with the "translation" from spoken to written Czech.
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