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A 65-year-old patient with a systolic murmur that developed five days after acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction was referred to our Institution. He had previously been treated with fibrinolytic therapy. The patient was in a stable hemodynamic condition when admitted, with sustained diuresis. Blood gas analysis revealed normal parameters, whereas a chest X-ray showed signs of pulmonary congestion. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a 1.5×1.2 cm post-infarction ventricular septum defect (VSD) in the apical part of the septum. Because the patient’s hemodynamic conditions were stable, we decided to postpone the operative treatment to allow scarring of the infarcted area to make VSD repair feasible, thereby increasing the chance for success. Operative treatment was performed three weeks after admission. We performed closure of the VSD with a bovine pericardial patch. The patient was discharged in good condition and remained well three months after the surgery.
Current European and American guidelines recommend early discharge for patients with uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, this concept has not been widely accepted, and experience with direct discharge from the coronary care unit is limited. We aimed to investigate safety and cost effectiveness of early discharge directly from coronary care unit following successful percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in patients with uncomplicated AMI. We included consecutive thirty-one patients with uncomplicated AMI and successful PTCA admitted to coronary care unit of a university hospital. Uncomplicated course was defined as absence of reinfarction, ischemia, VF/VT, repeated PTCA, and heart failure within first 72 hours. Incidence of death, reinfarction, VF/VT, need for revascularisation, and hospitalisation due to heart failure at 1, 6, and 12 months was compared with 56 randomly selected AMI patients with successful PTCA but longer hospitalisation. Average hospital stay was 4 days in early and 6.7 days in control group (p<0.05). Control group had more extensive coronary disease (54% two or more vessels vs. 28% in early discharge, p<0,05). During follow up, none of the early discharged patients died, the only observed event was repeat PTCA due to angina pectoris. In the control group, mortality at 12 months was 3.5% (p<0.05). Cumulative 12 month event free survival was 96% in early discharge group and 87% in control group, but difference was not significant (p=0.15, Cox-Mantel test). Cost reduction of early discharge amounted to 1100 Euro per patient. In conclusions, our study confirmed that for a selected population of patients with AMI, successful PTCA, and uncomplicated clinical course during first 72 hours, discharge as early as three days following the admission is safe.
Content available remote Coronary artery disease associated with radiation therapy
Recent advancements in curative-intent therapies have led to dramatic improvements in breast cancer-specific mortality but at the direct expense of increased risk of cardiovascular-related mortality. The use of radiation therapy has led to significant improvements in survival for patients treated for breast cancer. However, as patients live longer, the potentially serious adverse effects of radiation on the heart have raised concerns. Coronary artery disease following irradiation is encountered rarely but is one of the most devastating treatable complications.In this article we review the cardiac complications associated with radiation therapy.
In the current study, we evaluated the dynamics of oxidative stress markers in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Thirty consecutive patients with AMI with ST elevation were included. Plasma lipid peroxidation end product malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in blood plasma were evaluated. Peripheral venous blood samples were obtained prior to reperfusion and at five time points after reperfusion. The control group consisted of 20 ischemic patients without acute coronary syndrome. TAC in the AMI group at admission was lower than in control patients (1.26 + 0.32 vs. 1.52 + 0.24 mmol/l). Within 1 h after reperfusion, in most cases, values significantly declined (1 min, 1.10 + 0.33 mmol/l; 1 h, 1.06 + 0.21 mmol/l [p= 0.03]). After 3 h, values began to increase (1.14 + 0.29 mmol/l) and returned to basal values after 3 d (1.29 + 0.24 mmol/l). MDA levels in AMI patients at admission were higher than in control patients (1.66 + 0.55 vs. 1.44 + 0.55 mmol/l) but showed a sustained decrease over the 3 h after reperfusion of the occluded artery (1 min, 1.57 + 0.37 mmol/l; 1 h, 1.50 + 0.35 μmol/l; 3 h, 1.35 + 0.59 μmol/l [p = 0.03]). Reperfusion of the occluded coronary artery by PCI in AMI lead to an immediate decrease in TAC, suggesting formation of reactive oxygen species. However, the MDA level significantly decreased after reperfusion. This may suggests less reperfusion injury after PCI.
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