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EN
Elementary characteristics are used to describe traditional professional events - not conferences or seminars - but Meetings of Psychologists of the Danube Countries (1967-1993). After the first three held in Slovakia, they then took place successively in all the countries (excepting Romania) through which the mighty European river - the Danube - flows. They were attended by foremost experts from research institutes (Academies of Sciences) and Universities - over 500 in all. The study describes the strategic import of the Meetings and selectively also some of their gains and results.
Studia Psychologica
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2003
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tom 45
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nr 2
81-101
EN
In implicit psychology, Western culture primarily equates quality of life with good health, a well-functioning family and then with the possession of material goods or mammon - money. According to the political élite in advanced countries, the quality of life is ensured mainly by economy - height of the GDP symbolized mainly by the cost of the shopping basket. But what about the sick, the handicapped and the aging? The non-quality of their life was first noticed by medical experts in the early 30s of the 20th century. They primarily underlined relief from pain - discomfort, independence from medicaments, medical aids, the milieu. More or less in parallel with them, the quality of life also came to be noted by psychologists. Their principal criteria for it came to be subjective experiencing of satisfaction, well-being and happiness. Gradually, the phenomenon of quality of life became a subject of scrutiny by sociologists, environmentalists, political scientists; their numerous criteria for the quality of life are selectively dealt with here. The present study understandably lays stress on the psychological concepts of the quality of life. The principal terms are delimitated in confrontation with the views of various authors, methodical procedures are dealt with as problematic issues and certain methods.The author gives an outline of his own model of the quality of life which, in comparison with existing concepts, and underlines especially the basal (universal) plane, from the individual-specific (civilizing) and meta (cultural-spiritual) level. Quality of life represents a mega-problem for the oncoming epoch of mankind, bringing along paradigmatic changes in psychology, both on the theoretical plane and in application: from psycho-correction, psychotherapy, to optimization and prevention. These are the aims of the new challenge to psychologists for developing positive psychology.
Studia Psychologica
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2005
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tom 47
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nr 4
291-300
EN
It is surmised that problems in scientific research arise not only through filling up of so-called blank spots in knowledge and notifying of practical needs, but also atypically: casually as an unforeseen, that is to say, a by-product of a differently targeted project. The author relates how the phenomenon of multilingualism appeared to him as a noncontrolled variable, first in an empirical research of the development of child speech and then in an experimental research into psychomotor skills. It was noted that as regards the occurrence (use) of parts of speech, the structure of speech communication in bilingual children of preschool age strikingly differs from that of monolinguals. Subsequently it was proved that persons with a multilingual development had significantly slower motor responses to verbal, in contrast to light stimuli (pressing motions with fingers) than the common sample of subjects - undergraduates. There thus arose by now a targeted psychological problem of promptness in subjects commanding several languages, but of course, with subsequent exploratory probes. All that led to a more precise specification of the types of the phenomena under study (bilingualism, biglottism, bi- or multiculturalism) which differ in part from traditional concepts. There then followed several experimental studies by the author and his team which brought new methods and new data on the way the dominant language functions in interference with others acquired in various ways. Of all this, the author here presents only a self-experiment with color naming in different languages. In lieu of a conclusion, several questions of a theoretical nature are formulated concerning, as yet mostly mysteries of the existence of languages in speech which, from the anthropological, neurophysiological, linguistic, psychological as also philosophical aspect, may be considered a superproblem of man's functioning in this world.
Studia Psychologica
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2004
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tom 46
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nr 4
335-340
EN
An overview-prognostic study on ever-recurring problems in psychology. Listed are persisting theoretical problems in this branch, as also a review of modern orders to psychology deriving from the globalizing world. The center of the study is a list of questions set up by the author that are of high importance to psychological knowledge. None of the existing psychological movements and schools provides a systemic reply to them. The answers, however, do permit us to envisage possible progress of psychology as a science and expert activity.
Studia Psychologica
|
2007
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tom 49
|
nr 2
101-116
EN
A survey of conceptual, theoretical and methodological studies and apprehension of the quality of life. Following a brief historical review, the survey illustrates an integration model of the quality of life, which distinguishes between basal (universal), individual (civilizing) and elite (cultural-spiritual) quality of life; the meaning of life operates there as a systematic (universal) psycho-regulator of 'good' life. Up to now, the Slovak psychologists have not created a specific method of their own, they have adapted several methods from abroad, e.g. WHOQOL-BREF, Bern Questionnaire of Well-Being, Irish SEIQoL and others. Listed in the references are major specialized events (workshops and conferences) on the quality of life in the Slovak Republic in 1994 - 2006 as well as corresponding the grant research projects. The study concludes with the demands for plausible psychological research of the quality of life as the new paradigm for a positive psychology movement.
EN
Key words are also characterized from the standpoint of the Slovak researchers; optimism from the research data of I. Sarmany Schuller and quality of life in the concept of one of the authors (D.K.). The presumed positive relation of optimism and quality of life was differentiated in the sample of adolescents of both sexes between 15-20 years (N = 321). Four methods were used: scales of life satisfaction (Diener et al.) and optimism-pessimism (Levy), a transformed Bern questionnaire of well-being (Grob et al.) and a short 'flow' scale (Rheinberg - Vollmayer). Older adolescents showed a lesser satisfaction with life; girls worry more about the health problems and relations with parents, teachers and friends than boys. Flow was continuously experienced only by 25%, frequently experienced by 14%. Several correlation analyses are made accessible.
EN
Within the context of personality measurements, the scales WHOQOL - BREF (WHO, 1997) and ComQol - A5 (Cummins, 1997) were administered to a group of condemned drug addicts (heroin), N = 43, mean age 29 years. According to expectations, a difference of statistical significance appeared in the health indicators. Despite similar objective ratings, the addicts achieved significantly lower scores in subjective indicators of safety, social standing and emotional well-being than a group of controls.
8
Content available Inductive Coupling of the Electrical Systems
51%
EN
This papers deals with the computer analysis of the inductive coupling of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problem focused at the area of power electronics and electrical drives and tests performed by the numerical computer simulatian, which can also disclose the startling facts concerning the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems.
EN
The paper deals with construction design of DC permanent magnet disc motor by classical calculation method and its verifying by computer finite element simulation method. The paper deals also with the computer analysis of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems focused to the area of electrical machines, which can also disclose the startling facts concerning. A problem of interference between electric motor and surroundings space caused by electromagnetic field radiation is discussed too.
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