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EN
The demand for manufactured products and services, hunting for as biggest number of consumers as possible, meeting their expectations and at the same time ensuring the profitability of the conducted economic projects is a problem in today’s world. The primary operator who will decide on this success is a company functioning in a competitive market. Companies use a lot of development strategies to improve their level of competitiveness and to enhance and strengthen their position in the markets. One of them is a development strategy based on innovation. The purpose of this work is analyzing the level of innovation in Polish industrial businesses in years 2006-2011. The article shows data about productive and technological innovations as well as expenditures incurred by industrial businesses on innovative activity and the analysis of reached incomes from the introduced productive innovations. This analysis shows that industrial businesses which are part of productive and technological innovations have lowered in years 2006-2011. These businesses often introduce technological rather than productive innovation. The most frequent innovations are introduced by larger companies which hire over 250 employees from Podkarpackie Voivodeship and the least by companies from Łódź Voivodeship. The biggest expenditures on innovative activity were allocated by businesses in 2008 and 2010, mainly from Mazovia and Upper Silesia Voivodeships. The intensity of expenditures on B+R raised just by 0.04% to the level of 0.56% in 2010. Big differentiation is noticeable on the grounds of innovation of companies operating in a given area. Dominant role in innovation activity belongs to Mazovia and Upper Silesia Voivodeships.
EN
The most common form of mobility associated with the labor market, and also the most desirable for the region development, is the willingness to work outside the place of residence. The tendency of commuting to work shows flexibility and ability to adapt to conditions on the labor market. The aim of this article is the analysis of workers mobility in Poland and Wielkopolska based on data about commuting to work in 2006. A detailed analysis has been prepared based on Jarocin district in 2006 and 2010. The analysis showed that most of the people commuted to work in 2006 in districts located near larger cities and urban areas. They were mostly district towns and cities with district towns which were the central places of the regions. The intensity and different direction of commuting to work increased in Jarocin district in the years 2006-2010.
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Content available remote Wyzwania związane z pomiarem skuteczności udzielonej pomocy publicznej
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PL
W artykule przedstawiono podstawowe informacje dotyczące pomocy publicznej w Unii Europejskiej oraz analizowano procesy związane z jej udzielaniem na tle obciążeń podatkowych krajów należących do OECD. Wskazano także istotne barier związane z pomiarem skuteczności udzielonej pomocy publicznej.
EN
In the article, basic information on public aid provided in the European Union was presented together with an analysis of processes related to its provision in connection with taxation burdens of countries belonging to OECD. The article also points out to significant limitations related to the measuring of the efficiency of public aid provided.
EN
Clusters are not meant to be a way of solving single enterprises problems but rather to be a mechanism of activation of the whole regions. They enable to create cooperation and business relationships which exceed far above local possibilities. Thanks to a connection between all sorts of suppliers, manufacturers and academic institutions, small and medium businesses working as part of a cluster are able to achieve more than by running their businesses individually. Enterprises, through joint procurement and promotion policies, have greater bargaining power with suppliers and customers. The aim of this article is the diagnosis of economic and business situation of Lubelskie Voivodeship and pointing that one way to improve this situation is local authorities support of cluster initiatives.
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