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PL
Wyrobisko nieczynnej kopalni siarki w Machowie ma zostać zalane w 2000 r. wodami Wisły w celu przekształcenia go w sztuczne jezioro. Artykuł przedstawia prognozę zawartości fosforu w wodzie tego nowo utworzonego jeziora.
EN
The excavation of the idle sulphur mine in Machow is to be flooded in the year 2000 by the Vistula waters to make and artificial lake on that place. The paper presents a prognosis of the expected phosphorus content in the water of the new lake.
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Content available remote Internal phosphorus loading in selected lakes of the Cybina River valley
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The aim of this study was to assess the ability of bottom sediments to release or accumulate phosphorus. Ex situ experiments with the use of undisturbed sediment cores were done in 11 lakes situated in the Cybina River valley (Wielkopolska, Poland). Phosphorus release was observed both in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, however greater values were noted in the latter ones. Maximum values reached 41.4 mg m^-2 d^-1 P and 12.2 mg m^-2 d^-1 P in anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively.
EN
Studies were carried out on net phytoplankton of an urban Lake Jeziorak Mały, Mazurian Lakeland. Samples collected in 1996 showed domination of blue-green algae(67% of the total phytoplankton number). Limnothrix redeckei and Plankto-thrix agardhii were particularly abundant. The measurement of the water temperature during the mass occurrence of these species revealed, that Limnothrix redeckei dominated at 180C and Planktothrix agardhii at 200C.
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Content available The role of lakes in natural groundwater drainage
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EN
In the paper it is shown that the lakes of the North-Eastern Poland fulfil various functions in the groundwater phase of the water circulation. The value of the resultant of the groundwater supply to the lake, and in some cases also its direction, depend on the volume of the water undergoing a total exchange in the reservoir in the given year. In through-flow lakes the runoff increase coefficient also influences this value.
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Plastics are materials with many properties that make them extremely popular in everyday life and various industries. Studies show that plastic debris is global pollution and widespread in virtually all ecosystems. This study aimed to assess the coastal sediments of Ełckie Lake in terms of the presence of microplastics. Samples of sediments (n = 37) from the coastal zone of Ełckie Lake were drawn from different areas, including urban, rural, and tourist locations, and beaches. After the coastal sediment samples taking, they were subjected to density separation, filtration, and visual evaluation using the Olympus BX63 fluorescent microscope. Particles were classified according to the category of visible characteristics of microplastics including size, shape and colour. The results of the study showed the presence of microplastics in 84% of the examined coastal sediment samples of Ełckie Lake. Fibres, flakes, granules, and foils (films) had found in 58%, 45%, 32%, and 13% of the samples that contained microplastic, respectively. The majority of the detected microplastic was 0.5–1 mm in size and black was the dominant colour. Spatial variability was perceived in microplastic concentrations, giving premises to the assumption of dependence between local human activity and the content of particles.
EN
The purpose of the study presented in the article is to implement modern hydrographic characteristics of freshwater of the Shatsk Lakes (28 lakes in Volyn Polissya, Ukraine) by typing water bodies according to the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive, assessment of the chemical composition of lake water and bottom sediments (sapropel), determination of the opportunity for their recreational use in the special status of the district as a national park. Despite the presence of the two large lakes (Svityaz - 26.2 km2 and Pulemetske - 15.5 km2), very small lakes with a water surface area of less than 0.5 km2 (64%) are dominating in the Shatsk group. Mineralisation of calcium-hydrocarbonate lake waters is 115-303 mg∙dm-3 and calcium-sulphate aqueous extract of sapropel is - 318-1451 mg∙dm-3. Using a Piper diagram, it was found that there is genetic homogeneity between surface and groundwater, indicating a significant share of groundwater in the water supply of lakes. There are eight species of sapropel deposits in 19 lakes of the district. A wide range of chemical composition and physical and mechanical properties of sapropel deposits of the Shatsk Lakes allow us to consider them as an important resource for agriculture and industry. We found that sapropel from Shatsk Lakes meets the requirements for therapeutic mud and can be used for therapeutic and health purposes.
PL
Wyniki badań wprowadzonego w 1991 r. monitoringu reperowego wykazały, że stosowany w Polsce system oceny jakości wody jezior ma pewne wady. Wiele jezior zmienia klasę jakości z roku na rok. Błędna okazała się metodyka oceny podatności jezior na degradację - należy ją zmienić. Niepotrzebnie natomiast zmieniono sieć jezior badanych w monitoringu reperowym. Należy zastanowić się nad wprowadzeniem nowego systemu oceny, opierając się na dotychczasowych doświadczeniach i dyrektywach UE.
EN
Results of water datum points monitoring of lakes which has been carried out in Poland since 1991 show that evaluation system of lake water quality has certain disadvantages. Many lakes change their purity classes from year to year. The assessment system of lake susceptibility to degradation is wrong, it has to be changed. There was no need to change the network of observed lakes within the limits of datum points monitoring programme. According to experiences and directives of EC it is necessary to think about a new lake water quality evaluation system.
PL
Podpiętrzone jezioro czy sztuczny zbiornik o pochodzeniu jeziorowym to nie tylko i nie przede wszystkim kwestia terminologii. Interesujący artykuł. Sądzimy, że poruszona tu sprawa warta jest i rozważenia, i zastosowania w zestawieniach i klasyfikacjach.
EN
It is not only and not first of all a question of terminology whether that object is a dammed up lake or an artificial water reservoir of lake origin. An interesting paper. We deem the taken up subject to be a very important one and it deserves application in specifications and classification.
EN
The work shows the evaluation of physico-chemical parameters the city of Szczecin of the landscape based on the European Union Water Framework Directive. The study was conducted on three lakes within the boundaries of the city of Szczecin on the three lakes: Glebokie, Rusalka, Szmaragdowe. Szczecin is situated in North-West Poland, in the western part of West Pomeranian Voivodeship at Polish-German border. Research was carried out in the years 2008–2012, in the period from April to October. Water samples were taken from three stations on each of the three lakes. Sample water pH was measured. The water tests were taken according to the Polish Standards. The collected water samples were fixed in accordance with the recommendations in the Polish Standards. Other indicators for the quality of the waters have been tagged within 24 hours from the moment of sampling.
EN
The aim of this study was to examine the community structure and vertical micro-distribution of psammonic ciliates in two lakes of different trophic status in eastern Poland. Additionally, the size and trophic structure of these microorganisms, and the influence of physical and chemical water parameters on their abundance, were analysed. Psammon samples were collected during spring, summer, and autumn of 2010. In each of the lakes samples were collected in the euarenal, higroarenal, and hydroarenal zones of the psammolittoral. In order to determine the micro-vertical distribution of ciliates, each sample was divided into two sub-samples: the upper part (0-1cm) and the lower part (1-2cm). The species diversity of ciliates decreased with depth. The tendency was particularly clear in mesotrophic lakes. Irrespective of the lake’s trophic type and arenal zones, significantly higher numbers and biomass of ciliates were recorded in the surface layer of the psammolittoral. The upper layer of sand was dominated by omnivorous taxa, whereas the deeper layer showed increases in the proportions of bacterivore species. The factors limiting the occurrence of ciliates are mainly concentrations of total organic carbon and nutrients.
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EN
Samołęskie Lake is situated in the Poznań Lakeland in Greater Poland Voivodeship, Szamotuły County, Wronki District. The lake adjoins a little village of Samołęż of about 500 residents. The glacial waterbody of over 30ha acreage is a typical tunnel-valley lake having a maximum depth of over 22 meters. It predominantly serves fishing and recreation purposes offering a beach and a sailing center. Near the coastline (not in the direct vicinity) there is a farmland. The objective of the dissertation was to assess the quality of Samołęskie Lake waters that was delivered based on the studies carried out in spring and summer, when the waterbody demonstrates excessive fertility. The studies covered the analysis of the basic physical and chemical parameters of the lake water. The measurement was carried out on a fortnight basis by means of a measurement apparatus such as the photometer and the Secchi disc. The collected results are presented with the use of figures later in this paper, whereas their in-depth analysis allowed to compile and formulate conclusions. The results of studies and analyses lay the foundations to state that the quality of Samołęskie Lake waters requires continuous monitoring and application of remedial and rehabilitation measures.
EN
Health risk assessment and heavy metals analysis was carried out for 8 lakes water samples and 8 open well water samples in Gudiyattam region. Metal Index(MI), Adult Infusion(AI), and Hazardous Quotient(HQ) were determined to know the health risk in all locations using ingestion and dermal pathway. MI values are greater than 1 in all lakes as well as in well water for the location S1 to S3 and in S6 which indicates this water is unfit for drinking purposes. Based on HQingestion and HQdermal value, the location S1 to S4 are more polluted for the lake water. Among all the well locations S4 is the most polluted. Considering the Hazard Index (HI) of these metals was found to be greater than 1. Carcinogenic Index(CI) exceeded the acceptable limit of 1.0x 10(-06 to-04) in 5 locations for lake water and 1 location for well water. Especially the location S4 in lake water as well as in well water have direct proportionality in pollution load. The water sample previously said location can pose a serious risk to living beings.
EN
The work shows the evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of water Starzyc lake, based on the European Union Water Framework Directive. Research was carried out in the years 2008-2009, in the period from April to October. With each of the three measuring stations on the tested water samples were taken two separate Lakes for chemical analysis. At the place of sampling were numbered pH. Trying to test water were taken by Polish Standards. Collected water samples were fixed in accordance with the recommendations in the Polish Standards. Other indicators for the quality of the waters have been tagged within 24 hours from the moment of download attempts. Have studied lake close to neutral pH 7.64 to 7.76. All lakes in accordance with the classification of the European Union Water Framework Directive have been included in the first class. Studies have shown a diverse water quality in lakes in relation to tested indicators. By analyzing the average annual values can be noted that the pH of the water, the O2diss and the concentration of NO3-showed a relatively small variation in all investigated Lakes. The level of the General Suspension in Starzyc lake the peasant was on level II class. The concentration in the surface layer of Ptot. Lake is little differentiated, is at level II and III quality class according to the classification of the European Union Water Framework Directive. The concentration of total phosphorus is 0,32-0,47 mgźdm–3.
EN
The work shows the evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of water Resko lake, based on the European Union Water Framework Directive. Research was carried out in the years 2008-2009, in the period from April to October. With each of the three measuring stations on the tested water samples were taken two separate Lakes for chemical analysis. At the place of sampling were numbered pH. Trying to test water were taken by Polish Standards. Collected water samples were fixed in accordance with the recommendations in the Polish Standards. Other indicators for the quality of the waters have been tagged within 24 hours from the moment of download attempts. Have studied lake close to neutral pH - 7.63 to 7.79. All lakes in accordance with the classification of the European Union Water Framework Directive have been included in the first class. Studies have shown a diverse water quality in lakes in relation to tested indicators. By analyzing the average annual values can be noted that the pH of the water, the O2diss and the concentration of NO3? showed a relatively small variation in all investigated Lakes. The level of the General Suspension in Resko lake the peasant was on level II class. The concentration in the surface layer of Ptot. Lake is little differentiated, is at level II quality class according to the classification of the European Union Water Framework Directive. The concentration of total phosphorus is 0,22-0,29 mg?dm-3.
EN
The ecotonal zone was created by psammolittoral, emerged macrophytes in eulittoral and littoral, and submerged vegetation in littoral. Immigration of typical plankton species of Rotifera to the psammon communities occured. The highest density of rotifers was found in psammolittoral zone, lower in littoral and the lowest in eulittoral zone. The highest biodiversity was found in eulittoral and littoral zones of lakes with well-developed pond type phytolittoral.
EN
Is inshore, 2-cm layer of wet sand an ecotone? An attempt of this study is to answer the question by analysing characteristic patterns of a structure of rotifer communities inhabiting the psammolitoral zone. Psammon was sampled from sandy shore of a mesotrophic Lake Kuc (Masurian Lakeland, Poland), weekly from May to November 1996 and on one occasion in May 1998. Despite of extremely unfavourable conditions of their abiotic habitat, psammon rotifers of Lake Kuc were reaching occasionally extremely high densities. Seasonal dynamics of numbers and structure of psammon rotifer communities reflected variable character of their habitat. A course of the changes was similar in less variable higropsammon and extremely variable eupsammon. Patterns formed in psammolittoral - when illustrated with qualitative and quantitative features of psammon rotifer communities - fit definitions of an ecosystem, an ecotone, a part of a land/water ecotone, a microlayer in the ecosystem or a specific boundary zone in the lake ecosystem.
EN
The research concerned flow-through reservoirs fed with contaminated river water. The aim of the research was to recognize the impact of reservoirs on fluvial transportation of contaminants. Three reservoirs, situated in the Upper-Silesian region (southern Poland) and operating in different environmental conditions, were selected for the research: Pogoria I reservoir - operating in the quasi-natural direct catchment (with fluvial load of industrial-municipal wastewater), Przeczyce reservoir - under agricultural anthropopressure, and Dzierzno Due reservoir - under urban-industrial anthropopressure. The research included analyses of the quality of river water flowing into and leaving the reservoirs and calculation of contaminant loads at the inflows and outflows. The research showed that Pogoria I reservoir neutralised inflowing contaminants, thus purifying the river water. Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds were particularly efficiently retained. Electrolytic conductance of water in Pogoria was reduced by up to 50%. Przeczyce reservoir was alimented with eutrophic water (especially rich in biogenic elements) from agricultural land. The reservoir accumulated contaminants at the initial stage of the research. After several years, however, it started releasing some of the accumulated substances, causing an increase in contamination of river water with e.g. organic substances. The data concerning Przeczyce reservoir revealed that reservoirs can purify water from some substances and simultaneously cause an increase in contamination with other substances. Selectivity of hydrochemical impact of reservoirs was particularly visible in case of Dzierzno Due reservoir, which received wastewater from the urban-industrial catchment. It largely reduced the loads of suspended matter, phosphates or zinc, among other substances, at the same time causing secondary contamination with substances like ammonia, lead or cadmium. The results of the research show individuality of reservoirs in terms of their impact on fluvial transportation of substances. It might be believed, however, that each reservoir which is fed with contaminated water will have at least partly (selectively) contaminating impact in the course of time. That should be related to increasing eutrophication in conditions of limited capacity of accumulation of contaminants in the limnic environment. Detailed assessment of transfer of substances by a particular reservoir would require individual research for that reservoir.
EN
In the summer of 2008–2009 species composition and quantity of macrozoobenthos in deposits samples collected with Ekman gripping device at 4 points of Starzyc Lake was studied. Lake Starzyc also called Chociwel is located in West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is adjacent to the town of Chociwel from South and South East of the city. In the collected material of the analysed lake macrozoobenthos organisms from the following classes were found: Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Crustacea, Insecta and Bivalvia. The Insecta class was the most numerous one in respect of species found, including larvae of the following orders: Ephemeroptera (Leptophlebia sp., Ephemera sp., Caenis macrura (Stephens)), Trichoptera (Limnephilidae, Leptoceridae, Cyrnus sp.) Diptera and Megaloptera (Sialis lutaria L.). The density and biomass distribution in the analysed Starzyc Lake demonstrates the occurrence of unfavourable changes which may lead to eutrophication in the shallowest layers of the body reservoir and in the zone at the depth of 4.9 m. The littoral zone of the studied lake features high density and significant benthic fauna biomass with low values of PIE biodiversity index.
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