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EN
The article presents selected results of research conducted at universities in the Opole Voivodship among foreign students. It included foreign students in the full cycle at the bachelor or master's degree. This topic was considered important because of the demographic changes in Poland and the growing interest in higher education in recruitment of foreign students, mainly from outside the European Union. The objective of the research was to identify the factors that attract foreigners to study in Poland and Opole province, identify barriers to their education in Poland and to establish whether they would be interested in staying in the Opole region or in Poland after study. It has been established that the main reason for the students from outside the European Union to study in Poland is the possibility of obtaining a diploma which is recognized in the European Union, which gives a better career start. The biggest barrier to study in Poland is the need to meet several formal requirements (including translation of documents). Over 1/3 of respondents intend to stay after graduation in Opole province, but the same group does not have definite plans for the future after graduation.
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Security is a natural human need. Security needs include a desire for steady employment, health insurance, safe neighborhoods, and shelter from the environment. This article presents a description of the nature of the safety of the refugees, and persons with subsidiary protection, which are guaranteed with due respect for the rules of the Geneva Convention, and the safety of foreigners who applying for international protection.
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EN
Regardless of when and where migration takes place, the situation of a child-migrant is similar. In the context of migration a child of school (or even preschool) age commonly encounters problems associated with relationships with people in specifi roles. Children are in contact with their peers belonging to the “indigenous” national community, and (possibly) also with peers of other nationalities, including other emigrants, the teaching staff, and the school system as a whole. A study of the situation and problems of immigrant children in one country can therefore provide valuable information on the possible directions of research, research methods and techniques, and the range of problems that such a study should take into account. Researchers of Polish emigration to Western Europe (especially of post-accession emigration) have already stressed the need to pay attention to the situation of the child-migrant. In this article I present some of the problems faced by child migrants and their families using case studies researched in Poland.
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Content available remote Křesťané jako cizinci podle Prvního listu Petrova
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EN
The article deals with five Greek terms used in the First letter of Peter connected to the idea of being a stranger: paroikos, parepidemos, paroikia, diaspora and Babylon. Three of these terms (parepidemos, paroikia and diaspora) are taken over from the Jewish roots of Christianity, but these roots are decisive for the meaning of all of them. The addressees are characterized as paroikoi kai parepidemoi (strangers and sojourners), their status as paroikia (strangehood) and diaspora. The letter uses these terms to explain the situation of its addressees, the feeling of discrimination. Moreover, this situation should not discourage the addresses, but, on the contrary, it should encourage them to good conduct among the gentiles. The author of the letter considers himself in a similar position - he calls the city from which he writes Babylon.
EN
The article deals with Article 11of the Polish Constitution which establishes the freedom of association in political parties in Poland. It provides that political parties may be founded on the principle of voluntariness and upon the equality of Polish citizens, and their purpose shall be to influence the formulation of the policy of the State by democratic means. According to the Constitution and acts implementing its provisions, it is claimed that the freedom of association in political parties is reserved only for Polish citizens and foreigners are not allowed to participate in this kind of association to express their political interests. In the first part of the article the author describes arguments that confirm the above-mentioned interpretation of Article 11 of the Constitution. There are two main points: (1) the grammatical and literal interpretation and (2) the historical interpretation. It is claimed that the said provision of the Constitution guarantees this freedom only for Polish citizens. This understanding is confirmed by the practice of its interpretation. The author doesn't agree with this point of view. He believes that such interpretation omits an important part of Article 11. This provision refers to the freedom of association of citizens for the purpose of influencing the formulation of the State policy. It doesn't concern the influence on the formulation of the policy of the European Union and local self-governments. From the provision one may reconstruct a legal norm according to which foreigners are refused to associate in political parties for the purpose of changing the policy of the State, but there are no arguments supporting a legal norm saying that foreigners must not associate in parties for the purpose of exerting influence on the functioning the European Union and local self-governments. Political parties participate in all this areas. Foreigners (especially citizens of European Union) are entitled to take part in elections to the European Parliament and to constitutive, executive organs of self governments. Political parties enable enjoyment of political rights and freedoms by foreigners. The author considers such exclusion as discrimination against foreigners in the area of political freedoms in Poland.
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Content available remote ACQUISITION OF PREMISES AS REAL PROPERTY BY FOREIGNERS DURING THE YEARS 2004-2008
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EN
The paper presents the principles of acquisition of real property by foreigners that are different for the citizens of the European Economic Area countries and the other countries. The fragment of the real property market in Poland encompassing transactions in premises that involved foreigners was covered. In the base of the studies conducted for the years 2004-2008 it was established that the interest of foreigners in acquisition of premises in Poland increases.
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Content available POSTAWY POLAKÓW WOBEC OBCOKRAJOWCÓW
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EN
The article presents the outcome of the research of Polish Measurement of Attitudes and Values (PPPiW) on the attitudes of the Poles towards foreigners carried out in 2009 and 2010. The Bogardus Social Distance Scale was used in the analyses in order to describe the social distance between the Poles and the foreigners. The outcome facilitates the comparison at the local (Warsaw) and the national level together with the description of different perspectives towards strangers. According to respondents, immigrants should integrate themselves into the society by learning Polish and by accepting local axiomatic and normative rules. Although the Poles are likely to accept foreigners as their neighbours or work colleagues, they are less keen on them as potential partners of their children. According to the acquired data, Polish citizens express positive feelings towards „different” cultural groups but think in stereotypes.
EN
(Slovak title: Studenti, obchodnici, obchodni cestujuci a remeselnicki tovarisi pod drobnohladom habsburskej pasovej politiky v rokoch 1815 - 1848). This study is concerned with analysis and interpretation of Habsburg policy on passports and foreign visitors in relation to four specific groups. It enables us to penetrate into the 'everyday' struggle of the Austrian police to preserve the status quo in the Habsburg Monarchy in the period of formation of the ideologies of liberalism, nationalism and communism. Thorough verification of people entering the territory of the Austrian Empire, careful investigation of all possible 'harmful' influences from which it was necessary to protect the population, 'hermetic' closure of frontiers on one side, and the economic pressures of international co-operation, development of intellectual culture, national movements, bureaucratization with typical 'holes in the laws' and expressions of official sloppiness on the other, represent the main limits within which Austrian passport policy moved in the first half of the 19th century.
EN
This article concentrates on the socio-political situation of foreigners migrating to Poland and on the social climate related to their presence. In the latter subject special emphasis will be put on the attitude of Poles towards emigrants. We point to the relations which develop between institutionalized xenophobia, i.e. the creation of administrative barriers for mobility, and the distrust Poles present towards foreigners. The research problem is defined broadly as it encompasses a historical analysis of the perception of the notion of migration, the cultural meaning of migration, and legal issues pertaining to controlling international mobility. Based on numerous research projects, reports and case studies we recognize the mechanisms which inhibit the development of space for ethnic diversity in Poland and limit the contemporary society’s openness towards the settlement of foreigners.
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Content available remote "Žvást na žvást?" Interpretace Iz 28,10.13 v kontextu knihy proroka Izaiáše
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EN
This article offers an interpretation of difficult words 'caw läcäw qaw läqäw' in Isa 28,10.13. Rendering the words as a gibberish utterance of drunken priests and prophets or as a children's babbling is to be refused. It seems better to interpret the words as an imitation of some incomprehensible speech of foreigners in Jerusalem. In Isa 28,13, the prophet surely imitates the language of Assyrian conquerors, whose advance presents God's sarcastic response to His people for the lack of the trust in the time of Sennacherib's invasion. As for Isa 28,10, there are two possibilities of interpretation. The utterance could have the same meaning as it has later in Isa 28,13. But it is also possible to consider the unintelligible pronouncement in Isa 28,10 as a parroting of Ethiopian envoys (cf. Isa 18,2.7), who came to Jerusalem in attempt to obtain support for the anti-Assyrian coalition, which was resolutely criticized by Isaiah. In this case, Isa 28,10-13 would be regarded as an excellent example of Isaiah's art of irony.
EN
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the employment costs and advantages of employing a foreign labour force. The analysis was made based on the dual labour market theory, whereas employers were divided into employers of foreigners in occupations from the primary and secondary labour market. The analysis was based on 263 semi-structured interviews with employers from the Opolskie Voivodeship (Poland). The respondents were contacted in several ways. Firstly, the CAWI (Computer-Assisted Web Interview) and then PAPI (Paper & Pen Personal Interview) methods were used. The study showed that there is a significant statistical relationship between the labour market segment in which an employer hires a foreign employee, and the advantages gained by the employer. On the other hand, the study demonstrated no statistical relations between the labour market segment and the barriers for employing foreigners and their evaluation made by employers.
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Autor opisuje początki kształtowania się instytucji obywatelstwa państwowego na ziemiach polskich. Instytucja ta, wprowadzona pr zez cesarza Napoleona, była interpretowana i stosowana przez władze Księstwa Warszawskiego pod wpływem zarówno wzorów francuskich, jak i tradycji polskiej. Obywatelstwo państwowe otwierało możliwości udziału w życiu politycznym Księstwa grupom społecznym wcześniej tego pozbawionym. Jednocześnie jednak stanowiło narzędzie wyłączania społecznego grup uznawanych za niewystarczająco identyfikujące się z narodem i jego etosem. Podobnie jak to miało miejsce w innych krajach, obywatelstwo państwowe stawało się w ten sposób czynnikiem narodowotwórczym, sprzyjającym powstawaniu państw narodowych. Z polityką państwa w zakresie obywatelstwa wiązała się także polityka wobec cudzoziemców. W szczególnych warunkach Księstwa Warszawskiego polityka ta była akceptująca, ukierunkowana na wspieranie imigracji postrzeganej jako wsparcie dla gospodarki Księstwa. Instytucja obywatelstwa państwowego okazała się trwała i – pomimo krótkiego okresu trwania Księstwa Warszawskiego, a za to długiego okresu zaborów – ciągła. Dlatego właśnie okres wprowadzenia instytucji obywatelstwa państwowego jest tak istotny, wyznacza bowiem początek drogi dalszej ewolucji tej instytucji społecznej.
EN
The author describes the beginnings of the formation of the institution of the citizenship of the state on Polish soil. This institution, introduced by Emperor Napoleon, was interpreted and applied by the authorities of the Duchy of Warsaw, under the influence of the patterns of both the French and Polish traditions. The citizenship of the state opened the possibility of participation in the political life of the Principality of social groups previously deprived of it. At the same time, however, it was the tool of social exclusion of the social groups deemed insufficiently identified with the nation and its ethos. Just as it was the case in other countries, state citizenship thus became a factor of nation-building, conducive to the formation of nation states. The state policy in the field of citizenship entailed a policy towards foreigners. In the specific circumstances of the Duchy of Warsaw, this policy focused on fostering immigration perceived as support for the economy of the Principality. The institution of the citizenship of the state proved to be durable and – despite the short existence of the Duchy of Warsaw and the long period of the partition of Poland – continuous. Therefore, the period of the introduction of the institution of state citizenship is so important because it marks the beginning of the road for further evolution of this social institution.
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