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EN
In the global context, about 1.25 million people die each year as a result of road traffic crashes. Moreover, road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death among young people, aged 15–29 years. Furthermore, 90% of the world's road fatalities occur in low- and middle-income countries (WHO, 2017). In Sri Lanka, the accident rate is increasing rapidly. According to the transport and civil aviation report, 2801 deaths, 2590 fatal accidents, 13,095 minor accidents, and 7719 critical accidents occurred in Sri Lanka in 2015. The trend of the accidents has been increasing due to many factors. Physical features of the roads and roadsides, behaviour of drivers and pedestrians are the main influence on the occurrence of accidents. Central province has many accidents-prone areas due to its spatial and temporal patterns. Landform and climatic factors such as fog, snow and rainfall trigger accident potentials. Therefore, this study, “Spatial and temporal patterns of road accidents and their challenges: a study on Nuwara-Eliya District” investigates reasons for the enhanced rate of traffic mishaps. This is the first such study of this phenomenon. Herein, we used primary and secondary data. The results indicate that physical features are mainly to blame.
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Content available remote Phlegmon of the Foot As A Camel Bite Complication
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The great popularity of foreign excursions and travel in exotic directions, as well as increasing popularity of breeding exotic animals at home, is evidence that in daily practice one may observe injuries inflicted by animals atypically occurring in Poland. The study presented and described a rare case of a patient attacked by a camel living in an agro-tourism farm in our country. Thanks to the combination of surgical and conservative treatment complete wound healing was observed, including the skin grafts, with preserved motor function of the foot.
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Ergogenic aids have been used to alter joint kinematics in an attempt to minimise injury risk, yet the effectiveness of these aids may be compromised following a bout of exercise. This preliminary study aimed to measure the effect of compression garments and Kinesio Tape® on lower extremity joint alignment prior to and following an exercise bout. Eight male athletes (age = 24.1 ± 3.0 years, body height = 177.4 ± 5.2 cm, body mass = 72.3 ± 7.2 kg) volunteered to participant in this study. Joint kinematics were recorded whilst all participants performed three rotational lunges, in three conditions (control, compression garment, Kinesio Tape®), prior to and following a 10 minute exercise bout. Frontal plane kinematics (lateral pelvic tilt, knee valgus, ankle inversion/eversion) were used to assess ergogenic aid effectiveness during the lunge. Participants exhibited no significant differences in joint kinematics between ergogenic aid conditions prior to the exercise bout. Following exercise the only significant difference occurred within the Kinesio Tape® condition where maximum knee valgus angle significantly increased from 6.5° prior to exercise, to 7.7° following the exercise bout. The results of this study suggest joint kinematics are not affected by the ergogenic aids in this study prior to an exercise bout. However, there is evidence to suggest that the application of Kinesio Tape® may allow an increase in knee valgus angle following a bout of exercise, yet, compression garments are effective at maintaining joint alignment following a bout of exercise.
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Content available remote Sex Differences in Tibiocalcaneal Kinematics
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Purpose. Female runners typically suffer more from chronic running injuries than age-matched males, although the exact biome-chanical mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility of female runners are unknown. This study aimed to compare sex differences in tibiocalcaneal kinematics during the stance phase of running. Methods. Twenty male and twenty female participants ran at 4.0 m · s–1. Tibiocalcaneal kinematics were measured using an eight-camera motion analysis system and compared using independent samples t tests. Results. Peak eversion and tibial internal rotation angles were shown to be significantly greater in female runners. Conclusions. based on these observations, it was determined that female runners may be at increased risk from chronic injury development in relation to excessive tibiocalcaneal motions in the coronal and transverse planes.
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Horse riding is a satisfying and exciting sport and recreation activity. However, it is not without risk. A large percentage of riders experience accidents of varying degrees of severity during their professional and recreational careers. Any injury, even one that appears to be harmless, may turn out to be serious and exclude a competitor from sport for a long period of time. The purpose of the following research was to analyse the presence and incidence of contusions and injuries among novice and professional riders. The material for this study was collected using a research questionnaire conducted on a group of 1973 people. Participants were chosen at random and belonged to an equestrian community from different age groups. The research was carried out all over Poland. Equestrianism is definitely an injurious physical activity, which is confirmed by the answer of 75% of respondents who consider this sport to have been harmful and have suffered an injury related to horse riding. Most respondents suffered hand contusions (45.5%), concussion (25.4%) and hand fractures (16.4%). The strength of the study was the number of respondents (1973) and feedback on, among others, various types of injuries. These injuries can be easily avoided due to increased knowledge, practice, and education.
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Introduction Despite the positive aspects of taking up physical activity, sport, in general, is inseparably associated with injuries, as well as straining or overloading of the musculoskeletal system. The aim of this study was to determine the functional state and injuries among young athletes practicing cross-country skiing. Material and methods A total of 65 individuals participated in the study. The test group consisted of 33 individuals practicing cross-country skiing, while the control group consisted of 32 persons not involved in this sport. The study was divided into two stages. The first stage consisted of a survey in which participants completed a personal questionnaire and were asked to answer 17 questions. Next, the Funtional Movement Screen (FMS) test was carried out in both groups using a specialty devised assessment form. Results The assessment of the risk of injury in both groups was similar, no statistically significant differences were found in this respect (p = 0.992). No statistically relevant relation was between the number of injuries sustained and the training experience of individuals in the test group (p = 0.056). There was no statistically significant relationship between the number of sustained injuries and the training experience of individuals included in the test group (p = 0.056), although this relationship was close to the threshold of statistical significance. Conclusions Cross-country skiing training had no significant effect on musculoskeletal injuries. The FMS test result did not correlate with previously sustained injuries. Individuals who adopted preventive training schemes were less likely to sustain injuries.
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Introduction. Media publicity of sports and increased training have pushed the limits of the human body and have correspondingly led to an increase in the number of sports injuries. Incorrect play techniques, inadequate warm-up and other factors often lead to an increase in the number of injuries in Ultimate Frisbee. Aim. Assessment of the impact of gender, age and training experience on the incidence of injuries in Ultimate Frisbee. Material and methods. 110 people aged 16 to 35, regularly practising Ultimate Frisbee were included in the study. Of the 110 participants, 36 were women and 74 were men. The results were obtained by means of a questionnaire prepared by the authors which concerned sociodemographic data and questions about sports injuries. The incidence of injuries was analyzed in terms of the training experience, gender and age of the respondents. Statistical analysis was performed using STATISTICA 13.1. Results. Our research showed a relationship between sex and the site and type of injury. Age affects the main cause of the injury, and training experience influences the site and type of injury (p <0.05). The largest group of respondents were people training Ultimate Frisbee at least 3-4 times a week (62.73%). Conclusion. Sex and the training experience have a significant impact on the site and type of injury. The main cause of the injury depends on age; in the study group the most common cause of injury occurred when respondents were not complying with the rules and technique of the game.
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Aim. The aim of the study was to review the literature on the prevalence of cervical spine injuries divided between the level of the injury and the causes of fractures. Material and methods. A review of Polish and foreign literature was performed. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Medline, Science Direct, Termedia, and Polish Medical Bibliography. Literature analysis. In Poland the incidence of spinal injuries, including damage to the cord, is estimated at the level of 25–35 persons per one million of the population, half of these being cervical spine injuries. More than one in three of all spinal injuries affect the atlantoaxial and occipital area. It is estimated that axis fractures occur in up to 40% of the cases involving cervical spine injury. Odontoid fractures constitute 10–15% of all cervical spine fractures. Hangman fractures account for 20% of vertebral fractures. Cervical spine injuries more frequently occur in males than in females, and the relevant rates for males are from 1.5 to 2.7 times higher. The most common causes of cervical spine injuries include road traffic accidents, accounting for 33 to 75% of the cases, falls from heights (15–44%) and sports injuries (4–18%). Cervical spine injuries are most often diagnosed in subjects over thirty years of age. Such injuries most commonly are related to the second, fifth and sixth cervical vertebrae. On the other hand damage to the first and second cervical vertebrae is often observed in the same patients who are found with injury to lower cervical vertebrae (approx. 9% of the cases). In the group of advanced age subjects the most frequent cervical spine injuries are axial fractures and they are diagnosed in 15% of adult patients with cervical spine fractures.
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Content available remote A new non-laminectomy model of the spinal cord injury: pressure impactor
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The influence of air pressure impact on rat spinal cord injuries is presented. In order to verify the non-laminectomy model of spinal cord injury, a professional device was designed. The device is based on pneumatic solution and gives the opportunity to carry out repeatable, unlimited, controlled experiments without the necessity of an extensive opening of the vertebral canal.
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Content available remote Gender differences in the Achilles tendon load during the fencing lunge
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Background: Recent epidemiological analyses in fencing have shown that injuries and pain linked specifically to fencing training/competition were evident in 92.8% of fencers. Specifically the prevalence of Achilles tendon pathology has increased substantially in recent years, and males have been identified as being at greater risk of Achilles tendon injury compared to their female counterparts. This study aimed to examine gender differences in Achilles tendon loading during the fencing lunge. Material/Methods: Achilles tendon load was obtained from eight male and eight female club level epee fencers using a 3D motion capture system and force platform information as they completed simulated lunges. Independent t-tests were performed on the data to determine whether differences existed. Results: The results show that males were associated with significantly greater Achilles tendon loading rates in comparison to females. Conclusions: This suggests that male fencers may be at greater risk from Achilles tendon pathology as a function of fencing training/ competition.
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Occupational injuries requiring admission to a trauma unit were examined to outline the events surrounding the injury and to examine the costs. Sixty-nine patients were admitted over a 12-month period, representing 4.30% of all work-related injuries attending the emergency department and 4.25% of all admissions to the trauma unit. Most were male (91%), working in skilled trade occupations (65%), with a mean age of 38.8 years. Personal protective equipment was used only by 46% of injured workers who should have been using it. Sixty-one percent of patients believed that their injury was preventable. Half of the injuries were to the upper limb, fall was the most frequent mechanism (25%) and the median duration of admission was 2 days. The direct hospital costs were estimated at over 300 000 GBP. Failure to use protective equipment and to follow health and safety guidelines suggests that opportunities exist for injury prevention.
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Introduction Hypermobility is diagnosed by detecting asymptomatic and increased mobility of the joints over accepted standards. It might be inborn or practiced. The second one is a result of regular exercising e.g. dance career which generates loads in excess of tissues’ capacity of repairing which is leading to many chronic injuries. Main purpose of the research was to detect a correlation between the joint hypermobility presence and the injury occurrence in jazz dancers group. Material and methods The research have been conducted among 30 jazz dancers and 30 non-dancers. There has been used a survey with the following questions related with the physical activity, treatment of the occurred injuries, type of the stabilizing exercises, pain’s frequency and intensity (VAS Pain). In order to examine a hypermobility Beighton Score was used. Results In 27 dancers the joint hypermobility was detected and 23 of them suffered an injury in their life. The most common type of injury was a biceps femoris muscle strain (12 people). An average number of points from Beighton Score was 5.53. In the control group the hypermobility was detected in 9 people. An average number of points was 2.13. Mostly dancers were complaining about the pain in the knee joint (15 people, avg. 2.07 VAS points). In the control group the pain was related with the lumbar spine column (12 people, avg. 1.33 VAS points). The points from Beighton Score reached by the dancers was correlated with the injuries occurrence. The time of doing stabilizing exercises had no impact on the prevalent contusions but there was a correlation between the time and the frequency and intensity of the pain. Conclusions Benign hypermobility joint syndrome was more common among the dancers than non-dancers and was related with pain occurrence.
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Previous work has postulated that shoulder pain may be associated with increases in both peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force. Unfortunately these relationships have yet to be quantified. Thus, the purpose of this study was to associate these kinetic values with reported shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers. Nineteen healthy baseball pitchers participated in this study. Segment based reference systems and established calculations were utilized to identify peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force. A medical history questionnaire was utilized to identify shoulder pain. Following collection of these data, the strength of the relationships between both peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force and shoulder pain were analyzed. Although peak anterior force was not significantly correlated to shoulder pain, peak proximal force was. These results lead to the development of a single variable logistic regression model able to accurately predict 84.2% of all cases and 71.4% of shoulder pain cases. This model indicated that for every 1 N increase in peak proximal force, there was a corresponding 4.6% increase in the likelihood of shoulder pain. The magnitude of peak proximal force is both correlated to reported shoulder pain and capable of being used to accurately predict the likelihood of experiencing shoulder pain. It appears that those pitchers exhibiting high magnitudes of peak proximal force are significantly more likely to report experiencing shoulder pain than those who generate lower magnitudes of peak proximal force.
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Introduction Lower extremity injuries may be associated with proximal muscle weakness and decreased motor control. Our study aims to examine knee flexor and extensor muscle strength in athletes with and without trunk muscle strength asymmetry. Material and methods This matching control study involved a total of 80 athletes; 40 athletes with asymmetrical trunk muscle strength(asymmetric group) and 40 athletes with symmetrical trunk muscle strength(symmetrical group). Strength measurements of trunk and knee muscles were made with the IsoMed 2000 isokinetic device. Independent Samples T-Test or Mann Whitney-U test was used to compare variables according to their distribution status. The statistical error level was determined as p<0.05. Results In the symmetric group, the isokinetic muscle strength of the trunk flexor muscles was stronger than the asymmetric group (p<0.05) and the trunk extensor muscles were weaker than the asymmetric group (p 0.05). The Limb Symmetry Index(LSI) value of the two groups at 60°/sec was significantly different (p=0.032), and the dominant side in the symmetric group and the non-dominant side in the asymmetric group were stronger than the other side. Conclusions This result may be associated with knee joint injuries which are common in athletes with weak muscle strength, and can be attributed to the literature knowledge that core muscle weakness may increase the frequency of knee injury. Therefore, symmetrical core strengthening training can prevent possible injuries of athletes with asymmetrical trunk muscle strength. However, we think that more studies are needed to reveal this relationship.
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Introduction. Studies investigating the determinants of physical endurance were initiated nearly 30 years ago. The research was inspired by the curiosity to find out about the nature of talent for sport and why some athletes are better than others, despite the same or even greater effort in training routine, diet and the supplementation. An attempt was therefore made to determine the genotype of a perfect athlete, but conducted research showed that it is a very difficult task. Although 140 genes were proposed to affect of ideal sportsman fitness, scientists are still far from formulating answers about the nature of physical abilities and genotype. Aim. Our main goal was to review the literature about the selected genes and polymorphisms which are most often investigated in the context in relation to injury in sports. Materials and methods. Analysis of literature from US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, PubMED, Google Scholar. Results. We review the selected genes and polymorphisms which are most often investigated in the context in relation to injury in sports, we also present the function of genetic variants prevalent in athletes which are able to achieve better physiological adaptation during the training. Conclusions. There are probably more than 140 genes involved in physical performance. Changes in even one nucleotide within the gene (SNP) can improve the body’s adaptation to better physical performance and the frequency of injury to athletes.
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Content available remote Exploratory Investigation of Impact Loads During the Forward Handspring Vault
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The purpose of this study was to examine kinematic and kinetic differences in low and high intensity hand support impact loads during a forward handspring vault. A high-speed video camera (500 Hz) and two portable force platforms (500 Hz) were installed on the surface of the vault table. Two-dimensional analyses were conducted on 24 forward handspring vaults performed by 12 senior level, junior Olympic program female gymnasts (16.9 ±1.4 yr; body height 1.60 ±0.1 m; body mass 56.7 ±7.8 kg). Load intensities at impact with the vault table were classified as low (peak force < 0.8 × body weight) and high (peak force > 0.8 × body weight). These vaults were compared via crucial kinetic and kinematic variables using independent t-tests and Pearson correlations. Statistically significant (p < 0.001) differences were observed in peak force (t(24) = 4.75, ES = 3.37) and time to peak force (t(24) = 2.07, ES = 1.56). Statistically significant relationships between the loading rate and time to peak force were observed for high intensity loads. Peak force, time to peak force, and a shoulder angle at impact were identified as primary variables potentially involved in the determination of large repetitive loading rates on the forward handspring vault.
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From a physiological point of view, pain in sport has an informative function, indicating the maximum load capacity of the body and especially of those areas which are usually exposed to maximum loads and, consequently, damage or injury. Pain in an athlete’s body usually has a specific cause, predictable duration, and proven methods of treatment. Pain is part of the sporting experience, irrespective of whether the discipline is a contact or a non-contact sport. Interest in the problems of pain in sport has been growing in recent years, as demonstrated by the host of scientific publications referred to in the paper, and in general the number of articles and studies available in thematic databases. The problem of pain in sport will become increasingly important, not least because of the increasingly higher load on athletes in all disciplines, as shown by the successive new world records. Also, the increasing number of amateur and recreational athletes will require appropriate studies. As this group is not sufficiently prepared for the effort, it is very susceptible to injury. Pain in sport can also be expected to continue to gain in importance considering the increasing number of active elderly people, especially in European countries. The article emphasizes that better knowledge of this area may have practical applications in the training process of athletes as well as persons who are physically active during their working life and after retirement. Furthermore, pain in sport may, due to advances in biological and medical sciences, give rise to new research areas. In this paper, the main trends of scientific problems and research concerning biological aspects of pain in sport are presented.
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