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Biology is the most extensive field in the Corpus Aristotelicum. In his fundamental work De anima, Aristotle tries to fix the borders of this life science. The term ψυχή has a twofold explanatory status. On the one hand, ψυχή is understood as a principle of all living beings. On the other hand, it is understood as a cause of the fact that all living beings are alive. The paper is divided into three sections. (1) The first part shows why Aristotle discusses these issues in a work entitled Περὶ ψυχῆς. Since Pythagoras and Heraclitus, ψυχή was understood as a life principle: Pythagoras believed that men, animals and plants share the same nature: they are all ἔμψυχα and they are homogenous qua ψυχή. (2) The second part of this article deals with Aristotle’s definition of the soul in DA II: ψυχή is the principle of all living things. This establishes (i) the external criteria to divide living and non-living beings and (ii) the internal criteria to divide living beings. (3) The third part of this paper is concerned with the methodological consequences of this definition: the life functions (δυνάμεις τῆς ψυχῆς) are the central explanandum in Aristotle’s biology. De anima II defines such various life-functions as nourishment, sense-perception and locomotion. These capacities contour the main fields of the philosopher’s biological investigation. For Aristotle, the faculty of reproduction is a subtype of nourishment. Reproduction is the most important and most natural function of all living beings. Genetics is, therefore, the most important field in Aristotle’s biology.
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Biology is the most extensive field in the Corpus Aristotelicum. In his fundamental work De anima, Aristotle tries to fix the borders of this life science. The term ψυχή has a twofold explanatory status. On the one hand, ψυχή is understood as a principle of all living beings. On the other hand, it is understood as a cause of the fact that all living beings are alive. The paper is divided into three sections. (1) The first part shows why Aristotle discusses these issues in a work entitled Περὶ ψυχῆς. Since Pythagoras and Heraclitus, ψυχή was understood as a life principle: Pythagoras believed that men, animals and plants share the same nature: they are all ἔμψυχα and they are homogenous qua ψυχή. (2) The second part of this article deals with Aristotle’s definition of the soul in DA II: ψυχή is the principle of all living things. This establishes (i) the external criteria to divide living and non-living beings and (ii) the internal criteria to divide living beings. (3) The third part of this paper is concerned with the methodological consequences of this definition: the life functions (δυνάμεις τῆς ψυχῆς) are the central explanandum in Aristotle’s biology. De anima II defines such various life-functions as nourishment, senseperception and locomotion. These capacities contour the main fields of the philosopher’s biological investigation. For Aristotle, the faculty of reproduction is a subtype of nourishment. Reproduction is the most important and most natural function of all living beings. Genetics is, therefore, the most important field in Aristotle’s biology.
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Content available Body and biology
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The social community is neither a mosaic nor a sum of different identities but something akin to a new, compound being, characterised by its own genome: the mfDNA. It involves, in particular, a kind of colonisation, the outcome of events, contingencies, probabilistic dynamics, interrelationships between the individual (or society) and the environment. Furthermore, community does not imply a mere list of species but a milieu that exists to serve their relative, not simply single and bi-univocal representations and interrelationships, acting within a complex multifactorial network characterized by a preliminary mathematical-model approach. Therefore, it is possible to introduce a new perspective, driven by the mfDNA approach and biology, and suggest a wider context capable of improving our understanding of the role of individuals within societies. We propose a new tool, the “social mfDNA model”, as an interior indicator of the properties, composition and dynamics of human society.
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In this paper we described three Art & Science projects organized by the Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology (Polish Academy of Sciences), Marcel Nencki Foundation for the Support of Biological Sciences and the Art Department of the University of Rzeszów. First project, celebrating the 100th anniversary of theNencki Institute, was entitled “Biological imaging: inspiration by invisible world” and took place in Mikołajki in 2017. Next two projects were relating to “Art of Biodiversity” (Rzeszów, 2018) and “Power of Biological Structures” (Przeworsk, 2019). The aim of the projects was to introduce ideas of modern experimental biology to artist. All symposia/workshops were followed by few exhibitions at the Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Art Department of the University of Rzeszów, etc. Some of paintings originated during these projects established Nencki Art Collection, collection of modern art at Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology.
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Biology vs. sociology and the progress of the national body (a theoretical debate in Bulgarian society in the inter-war period)This text discusses the debate pro and contra the possibilities of biological sociology, the new scientific trend, with respect to its possible benefit for the progress of the nation – a priority issue in the inter-war period. The author presents the arguments of Bulgarian philosophers, sociologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, and other thinkers in the field of the humanities, who commented on the achievements of biology and medicine and their applications for “improving” man and making social life healthier by means of various kinds of negative eugenics. The article focuses on the theoretical controversy between the two approaches to society; their serious consequences are commented on primarily in the context of this debate. The discussion is also viewed as echoing European trends at that time regarding this new role of biology.Two philosophical schools in Bulgaria – Rehmkeanism and Marxism – supported “autonomous sociology,” according to which human society is radically different from the sphere of nature, and the biological factor is not important for changing society. The opponents of this view, more numerous, maintained that heredity was more important than the influence of social environment and upbringing; hence, eugenics – the science of the genetics-based improvement of people and mankind – held many possibilities.The article presents the variety of stances that appeared after the change of the intellectual paradigm of “biologizing” social sciences, as well as the actual attitudes underlying these stances. The author looks for traces of this debate coming down to the present day. Biologia vs socjologia i postęp ciała narodowego (Pewna teoretyczna debata w społeczeństwie bułgarskim w okresie międzywojennym) W artykule została przeanalizowana debata za i przeciw możliwościom socjologii biologicznej, nowego trendu w nauce, w odniesieniu do potencjalnych korzyści dla postępu narodu – kwestii priorytetowej w okresie międzywojennym. Autor przedstawia argumenty bułgarskich filozofów, socjologów, psychologów, psychiatrów oraz innych myślicieli na polu humanistyki, którzy komentują osiągnięcia biologii i medycyny i ich zastosowanie do „polepszenia” człowieka i uzdrowienia życia społecznego na drodze różnego typu eugeniki negatywnej. Uwagę skupiono na sporach teoretycznych między dwoma podejściami do społeczeństwa; ich poważne konsekwencje są komentowane przede wszystkim w kontekście samej debaty. Dyskusja jest ujęta również jako echo ówczesnych trendów europejskich, dotyczących nowej roli biologii.Dwie szkoły filozoficzne w Bułgarii – remkeanizm i marksizm – popierały „socjologię autonomiczną”, wedle której społeczeństwo ludzkie jest radykalnie różne od sfery natury, tak więc czynnik biologiczny nie jest dla zmian społecznych istotny. Zgodnie z przeciwnym punktem widzenia, częściej spotykanym, ważniejsze niż wpływ środowiska i wychowania jest dziedziczenie, toteż eugenika – oparta na genetyce nauka o polepszeniu człowieka i ludzkości – daje wiele możliwości.W artykule ukazano różnorodne stanowiska, pojawiające się w wyniku zmiany intelektualnego paradygmatu „biologizowania” nauk społecznych, jak również autentyczne postawy leżące u ich podstaw. Autor analizuje ślady debaty także w dzisiejszych czasach.
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Content available remote Connection of biology and ecology with mathematics
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Natural sciences have achieved rapid growth of knowledge and come up to new approaches of studying organisms. One of the approaches is integrating the disciplines and their mutual permeability. The integrative disciplines, such as ecology, can be an example of such procedure. Developing the connection between mathematics and ecology becomes possible with the help of mathematical models that are used to solve biological problems. Showing examples of interactive disciplines at school can encourage pupils’ creativity and inspire them to look out for information not only in an individual field of study, but in other disciplines. Numeric data is convincing for pupils and helps them to put compelling and plausible arguments.
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Content available remote The Change in William I. Thomas’s View of Biology
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In this article the author shows how the exploding role of biology in William Thomas’s sociology and social psychology has changed. Since the beginning of his career, this researcher addressed numerous topics that involved both biological and social factors – he commented on the nature of gender, race, instincts, prejudice and evolution. His departure point was biologism, which proclaimed that innate predispositions are a variable independent of social processes. In the following years, Thomas changed his beliefs, recognising that it was culture and society that left its mark on physiological and psychological development. The changes in Thomas’s reasoning are described by the author against the background of past and present views on the relationship between society and the brain, claiming that his late views could resonate with today’s approaches.
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Similarly to other works created in the context of enactivism, the works presented in this section refer to the permanently emerging subject as well as, simultaneous- ly, the world of this subject. In the article entitled „The Mind-Body-Body Problem” an animal becomes the basic element of the mind-body-body relation, while in „Living ways of sense-making” the author makes a callback to the research he performed together with Varela in the context of phenomenology and biology.
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This paper describes methodological and theoretical problematics in creating knowledge about the relations between politics and biology. eThse problematics are cit ed from philosophy and philosophy of science, critical theory, and scientific method(s). ehT case of politics characterized by the dark tetrad - narcissism, psychopathy, Machi avellianism, and sadism - and biology characterized by evolutionary theories are used as an example. eTh conclusion is that the relations between politics and biology are un knowable and attempts to apply putative knowledge of such relations have led to tragedy and atrocity throughout history.
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All my sour-sweet days I will lament and love – a comparative analysis of metaphors with the basic taste adjectives in Polish and EnglishThis paper provides a comparative analysis of verbal synesthetic metaphors with the basic taste adjectives in Polish and English: słodki/sweet, gorzki/bitter, kwaśny/sour, słony/salty. Since taste seems to be an ideal candidate for a universal, biologically determined source of metaphors, the authors seek to verify the hypothesis of metaphor embodiment. The corpus-based analysis of nominal phrases with basic Polish and English taste adjectives indicates that cultural influences on the metaphorical mapping, as well as the importance of the target conceptual domains, must be taken into account. All my sour-swet days I will lament and love – kontrastywna analiza metafor z przymiotnikami oznaczającymi podstawowe smaki w języku polskim i angielskimW artykule analizowane są metafory synestezyjne z przymiotnikami określającymi podstawowe smaki w języku polskim i angielskim: słodki/sweet, gorzki/bitter, kwaśny/sour, słony/salty. Percepcja smakowa, uwarunkowana biologicznie, wydaje się dobrym przykładem uniwersalnej domeny źródłowej w procesie metaforyzacji. Celem pracy jest weryfikacja kognitywnej teorii o metaforze ucieleśnionej oraz sprawdzenie, w jakim stopniu na proces metaforyzacji wpływają czynniki kulturowe.
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Content available remote Josef a Vladimír Úlehlovi - mezi pedagogikou, biologií a národopisem
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J. Úlehla (1852-1933) - a teacher, headmaster of secondary schools and organizer of pedagogical life in Moravia, and his son V. Úlehla (1888-1947) - a biologist, musical folklorist and university professor, significantly influenced their fields of study, especially education, biology and ethnography. J. Úlehla promoted the use of folk verses, sayings, riddles and proverbs as well as frequent outdoor activities in the instruction of six- to eight-year-old children. Valuable ethnographical information on misery of Wallachian people, emigration to America and child labour is contained in Listy národopisné. Autobiographical information in the books by V. Úlehla Živá píseň and Duše lidu testify of author’s relation to Moravian Slovakia and its rich cultural tradition which inspired him to collect folk songs. He treated the collected information from the point of view of a biologist - e.g. when expressing his opinion of the age of folk songs. The aim of this essay is to answer the question: ‘how did teachers influence the lives of people and transformations of folk culture at the turn of the 19th and the 20th century?’. They helped to improve the quality of primary education, participated in clubs and societies; they took part in Národopisná výstava českoslovanská (Czechoslavic Ethnographical Exhibition), collected folk songs and engaged in local history research. At the same time, educational institutions (representing modern society) and the church came into conflict: the religious practices clashed with man’s freedom and his needs.
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