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EN
The number of somatic cells was determined by the California Mastitis Test using Mastirapid (TOK) and the Whiteside test in 5049 samples of milk from milk purchasing sources (PSM) and in 185 samples of milk at street commerce (sold at street markets’ by individual farmers). The hygienic quality of milk was evaluated by the reductase test using resasurine. Whiteside test showed that 64.0% of milk samples from milking by hand, 69.2% of samples from machine milking and 68.1% of milk samples from street commerce contained more than 500 000 somatic cells per one ml. The TOK showed an increased number of somatic cells in 21.3% samples of milk from milking by hand, 30.4% of samples from machine milking and in 37.8% milk samples from street commerce. Only 51.0% samples of milk from milking by hand, 36.2% from street commerce and 33.6% of samples of milk from machine milking were qualified to the 1st class. It was found that the milk from the milk purchasing sources from more than 60.0% of the herds contained an increased number of somatic cells and that in 30.0% of the herds this increase was very clear. These data suggest that in such herds mastitis was present at least in one cow.
EN
There were performed clinical examinations of udders and milk samples taken from 2084 cows of 20 farms in which some difficulties in obtaining milk of high quality were noted. It was found that both a low milk yield and milk quality were associated with mastittis and poor hygienic state, and nutrition errors. Postitive resullts of CMT were on an average in 63,2% of cows (37.8—87.5%). The presence of bacteria was found in 46.5% (15.9—69.5%), subclinical mastitis in 9.5% (2.4—20.3%). Mastitis was caused by Streptococcus agalactiae on an average in 17.8% (0—49.0%), Str. dysgalactiae in 8.5% (0—20%), Str. uberis in 10.3% (2.0—42.9%), Staphylococcus aureus in 12.2% (0—38.7%), Staph. epidermidis in 29.2% (16.2—42.2%), Micrococcus spp. in 18.1% (7.7—35.7%), E. coli in 1.2% (0—4.3%), yeasts in 0.8% (0—35%). In no farm a complete control of mastitis was employed.
PL
Badania wykazały niezadowalający stan techniczny i higieniczny dojarek oraz niewłaściwą technikę doju. Stwierdzono także pogorszenie się zdrowotności wymion krów, zwłaszcza w ostatnich latach.
EN
The assessment of technical and hygienic condition and technique of milking on the selected private and state farms has been carried out for the last 15 years. Technical condition of milking machines was unsatisfactory during that period and practically it has remained at the same level. It was found that eight improvement of pulsators and teat-cup liners was due to the replacement of outdated elements and units by new ones. Statistically only every sixteenth teat-cup cluster (with claw) was technically efficient and every ninth of them was in good hygienic condition. Unsuitable technical and hygienic condition of milking machines and errors of milking technique do not explain violent drop of cow udders wholesomeness in die last decade.
PL
Niniejszy artykuł stanowi pierwszą część wieloczęściowej publikacji poświęconej cyklicznym wahaniom podciśnienia w dojarce mechanicznej. Na podstawie dostępnej bibliografii opisano związek wahań podciśnienia ze zdrowotnością wymion krów oraz jakością pozyskiwanego mleka w sieci mlecznej dojarki mechanicznej. Szczególnie negatywne oddziaływanie na wymię krów, dojonych za pomocą dojarki konwencjonalnej, wydają się mieć nieregularne wahania i wysokie cykliczne wahania podciśnienia, w powiązaniu z przepływami powrotnymi. Problem wahań podciśnienia w sieci mlecznej dojarki jest problemem obiektywnym, bardzo złożonym i nie do końca rozwiązanym.
EN
The paper presents first part of extensive publication considering vacuum fluctuations in milk piping of a milking machine. On the basis of literature the relationships among vacuum fluctuations, udder health and the quality of yielded milk into milk piping of milking machine were reviewed. High, irregular periodical fluctuations of vacuum pressure together with the reversal flows seem to affect in particulary harmful way the udder milked with a conventional milking machine. Effects of calf suckling and machine milking parameters on milk secretion were compared, also the risk of teat overloads, mastitis infection and milk quality as related to machine milking operation parameters were discussed with special emphasis on the role of vacuum fluctuations.
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