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Technology is involved in creating new objects, processes, structures, dependencies that have never existed before. Engineering technology of creating new material objects or preparing spaces for different human or animal activity encompasses: 1) engineering sciences, 2) engineering processes of production, 3) products and spaces. Within engineering sciences there are: metrology, material science, energy science, machine science, electro-technique, electronics, automation, robotics, informatics, and tele-communication. The engineering process consists of several stages: analysis of needs, designing, production, usage and maintenance, fixing and parts exchange, waste disposal, marketing, development of products. The sport of today has the same aims as earlier: competitors must be faster, jump farther and higher, lift heavier loads, shoot with higher precision at the target, show better tactical solutions. Engineering helps the above mentioned problems significantly. Within sport engineering products one can present those concerning the body, movable, immovable, those concerning information technology, and miscellaneous ones. There are also different spaces used by sportspersons.
Purpose. The aim of the overall research on alpine skiing was examination of the biomechanical approach to tactics of running a course. The aim of this particular paper was presentation of first results on the geometry of courses of four disciplines. Basic procedures. The research covered competitions of alpine skiers during the 2006/2007 FIS World Cup. All four alpine skiing disciplines, i.e. downhill, super giant, giant slalom, and slalom, were taken into account. Each discipline was studied three times: in Italy, Austria, Germany, Slovenia, and Norway. 54 to 82 alpine skiers took part in each of the competitions. Differential GPS for geometry of gates setting and video camera for time data were used. Then the distribution of velocity for each runner along the entire course was calculated. Main findings. The first data on geometry of the ski courses revealed a large difference in vertical drop and length between the disciplines, with the angles of inclination, however, being similar. Conclusions. The knowledge of detailed geometry of ski courses is important since up to one-third of competitors do not finish particular runs. It happened that as many as ten skiers ran off the course at the same gate.
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