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Content available remote Dostęp do informacji o orzecznictwie polskich sądów
100%
PL
Informacja o orzeczeniach jest rodzajem informacji prawnej, rozumianej jako każda informacja o faktach mających (lub mogących mieć) znaczenie prawne niezależnie od tego, czy zawarta jest w tekstach aktów prawnych, tekstach wykładni czy tekstach doktryny prawa. Dokonano krótkiego przeglądu istniejących na gruncie polskiego prawa rodzajów orzeczeń sądowych wraz z omówieniem ich struktury informacyjnej. Wskazano dostępne źródła informacji o orzecznictwie z podziałem na: tradycyjne (urzędowe i nieurzędowe zbiory orzecznictwa oraz serie wydawnicze) oraz elektroniczne (komercyjne i niekomercyjne systemy informacji prawnej). Artykuł został wzbogacony o ocenę kompletności systemów informacyjnych w odniesieniu do orzecznictwa.
EN
Information about case law is a type of legal information, defined as every information that has (or may have) meaning in law, which does not matter if it comes from legislation, judicial interpretations or legal doctrine. In the article it was done short review of Polish types of judgements including the explaination of their information structure. There were also shown available case law sources which were divided into types: traditional (official and unofficial case law collections and series) and electronic (commercial and non-commercial law information systems). The article includes also the completness graduation of the information systems in relation to court’s decissions. The graduation was based on the author’s research which was done especially for this project.
PL
Gminy i związki międzygminne zobowiązane są m. in. do zapewnienia odbioru odpadów komunalnych z nieruchomości zamieszkałych oraz umożliwienia deponowania odpadów w punktach selektywnego zbierania odpadów komunalnych. Z założenia poza zadaniami gminy pozostaje odbiór odpadów komunalnych z nieruchomości niezamieszkałych. Stan odmienny występuje w przypadku przyjęcia uchwały, o której mowa w art. 6c ust. 2 ustawy z dnia 13 września 1996 r. o utrzymaniu czystości i porządku w gminach (tj. Dz. U. z 2021 r. poz. 888, dalej: „u.c.p.g.”).
PL
Według Zielonej, a następnie Białej, Księgi Komisji Europejskiej dotyczącej adaptacji do zmian klimatycznych w Europie, konieczne jest podjęcie w krajach członkowskich Unii Europejskiej działań na rzecz łagodzenia efektów negatywnego oddziaływania zmian klimatu m.in. na zasoby wodne. Projekt KLIMAT "Wpływ zmienności klimatu na środowisko, gospodarkę i społeczeństwo (zmiany, skutki i sposoby ich ograniczenia, wnioski dla nauki, praktyki inżynierskiej i planowania gospodarczego)" jest odpowiedzią na powyższe wyzwania. W projekcie, jako podstawę rozważań przyjęto opracowane przez IPCC 3 scenariusze rozwojowe: A1B, A2 i B1. W tym artykule przedstawiono dotychczasowe wyniki uzyskane w ramach projektu KLIMAT, dotyczące m.in. przebiegu prac nad scena-riuszami rozwojowymi, przyjętej metodyki prac w zakresie analiz zmian w zasobach wodnych i analizy potrzeb wodnych. Ponadto przedstawiono Polskę w wybranych raportach dotyczących zmian klimatu.
EN
Due to the specificity of the Water Law Act, legislation in water management provokes many legal problems resulting from the quality of documents necessary for taking decisions. It causes serious problems related to the dependent use of waters on the basis of authorizations granted. Another article of this series focuses on some issues related to the construction of new residential districts.
EN
The article overviews the most important judicial decisions of the Supreme Court concerning application of the provisions on the EU social security systems coordination, which have been issued since Regulations No 883/2004 and 987/2009 came into force. The analysis allows identifying two major categories of cases. The first relates to disputes concerning determination of the applicable legislation, including delegation of employees to work on the territory of another member state and simultaneous pursuit of activities in two or more member states. The other category concerns awarding of benefits, in particular old age pensions. In this category one can distinguish such issues as application of the principle of equal treatment of benefits, income, facts or events, and relation between coordination regulations, both currently and previously biding ones, as well as bilateral agreements. The issues in questions seem to be dynamic. To a large extent this is due to the changing socio-economic conditions, which labour-related migration is subject to. Moreover, as regards the sphere of social security it may take several decades from the time one becomes subject to social security until they acquire rights to benefits under the laws of various EU member states. All this makes the ability to apply intertemporal rules, as well as the general principles of social coordination, which allow courts to arrive at fair and lawful decisions on matters concerning the specific individual questions, very important.
EN
The aim of the publication is to present the results of research on the issue of the application of the provision of Article 297 of Polish Penal Code in practice and an attempt to evaluate them and an attempt to formulate conclusions.The features characterizing the offense under Article 297 § 1 of Polish Penal Code, which reads as follows: who, in order to obtain for himself or someone else, from a bank or organizational unit conducting similar economic activity under the Act or from an authority or institution with public funds - credit, monetary loan, surety, guarantee, letter of credit, subsidy, subsidy, confirmation by the bank of a liability arising from a surety or a guarantee or similar cash payment for a specific business purpose, payment instrument or public contract, submit counterfeit,converted, attesting untruth or unreliable document or unreliable written statement regarding circumstances of significant importance in order to obtain the mentioned financial support,payment instrument or order, it is punishable by imprisonment up from 3 months to 5 years.Discussed are also the indications of committing an act consisting in abandoning the notification in Article 297 § 2 of Polish Penal Code, worded as follows: who, in breach of a binding obligation, does not notify the relevant entity of the situation that may affect the cessation or limitation of the financial support referred to in § 1 or the public order or the possibility of further use of the electronic payment instrument.Next, the methodology of the research was described in detail. The research was of an files nature and concerned final judgments issued by courts of second instance. The time period of researches was from 2012 to 2016. A purposeful selection was also made due to the legal qualification of the deed on the basis of which the conviction was handed down in the first instance, i.e. the offenses under Article 297 of Polish Penal Code. Then the results of the research were presented and an attempt was made to comment on the results obtained. The conclusions from the research indicated, among others, the cases of lack of correct understanding of the provision, confusion of concepts, unnecessary automatic cumulative classification of the deed,narrowing the use of the instruments mentioned in the provision to credits, loans and subsidies,and many more cases.
EN
The aim of this article is to analyze selected administrative court rulings from the perspective of concepts and processes related to the spatial competition and to define the role of these courts as well as some of the current legal regulations in the spatial competition. The cases (current in the context of the case line) pending before the administrative courts, closely related to spatial conflicts have been meticulously analyzed. The cases concerning local zoning plans and decisions along with land development have been selected. Their results and excerpts of the justification have been combined with the rules of the spatial competition, consequently precisely defining the role of public authorities in determining specific land development.
EN
In the practice of the Polish local and regional government, participatory budgeting has been used since 2011, and was the first one introduced in Sopot. It is a form of consultation with residents on the allocation of a portion of the budgetary expenses of a unit of the local or regional government, most often a city. This is a special type of procedure in which residents participate in the creation of the budget of a city (municipality), thereby jointly determining the distribution of a certain pool of public funds. In the first years of the application of participatory budgeting in Poland, a very general legal authorization was used to allow consultations with residents. It was only after several years of grassroots use of participatory budgeting that it was regulated in the Polish legal system in the Act of January 11, 2018 amending certain acts. Since then, it has become a mandatory form of public consultation in cities with district rights. The procedure for participatory budgeting in municipalities is generally regulated in Article 5a of the Act on the commune-level local government. The application of participatory budgeting in Poland has resulted in an extensive case law of administrative courts, hence the purpose of this paper is to determine the group of those entitled to participate in public consultations on participatory budgeting in light of the law and the case law of administrative courts. Using the dogmatic-legal method enabled a positive evaluation of the adopted research hypothesis that the provisions of local law that designate the group of entities entitled to participate in participatory budgeting procedure is restrictive compared to the provisions of the applicable statute.
PL
Orzecznictwo w gospodarowaniu wodami nastręcza - z uwagi na specyfikę ustawy Prawo wodne - wielu problemów natury prawnej, wynikających z jakości niezbędnych do podejmowanych rozstrzygnięć dokumentów. Rodzi to poważne problemy wynikające z zależnego korzystania z wód na podstawie uzyskanych uprawnień. Niniejszy artykuł otwiera cykl publikacji poświęconych problemom pozwoleń wodno-prawnych. Przybliżenie tej problematyki, na podstawie praktycznych doświadczeń wynikających z postępowań odwoławczych, powinno ułatwić Czytelnikom naszego czasopisma, w szczególności tym wnioskującym o uzyskanie pozwolenia wodnopraw-nego, jak i organom wydającym te pozwolenia, przygotowywanie i ocenę wymaganych dokumentów oraz wyeliminowanie występujących, często jeszcze niestety, mankamentów.
EN
Due to the specificity of the Water Management Act, the judicial practice in water management causes many legal problems, resulting from the quality of documents necessary for taking decisions. It provokes serious provblems resulting from the dependent use of waters on the basis of the authorizations granted. This article opens a series of publications devoted to the problem of authorizations required under the Water Management Act. Detailed description of these issues, on the basis of practical experiences of the appeal proceedings, should help our Readers, especially those that are applyung for an authorization required under the Water Management Act, and the organs granting such authorizations to prepare and evaluate required documents and eliminate shortcomings that are unfortunately still often occurring.
EN
The article deals with the issue of legality of displaying Christmas symbols, in particular creche, on public property. The problem is considered in the context of the constitutional freedom of speech and the Establishment Clause in the U.S. legal order. In the case law it is assumed that a presentation of creche in public space is constitutional, provided that the Nativity scene is a part of a display also featuring secular holiday symbols, such as Santa Claus, reindeer, snowman or Christmas tree. According to the author, the so-called “plastic reindeer rule” trivializes religion and reduces creche to a fairy-tale ornamentation. The author is of the opinion that public authorities can constitutionally use an “unsecularised” symbol of creche to show historical, religious origin of Christmas.
EN
This article focuses on the position of the Supreme Court in the Czech judicial system from the perspective of its role in the unification of case law. It is divided into three separate parts examining the relationship between i) the Supreme Court and the Court of Justice of the EU and the European Court of Human Rights, ii) the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court, iii) the Supreme Court and lower courts. Purpose of the article rests, besides the theoretical grasp of the issue, in pointing out the individual practical overlaps of the subject matter. In the context of examining the relationship between the Supreme Court, the Court of Justice and the European Court of Human Rights, the author highlights the importance of the Supreme Court in facilitating the correct application of the case law of these courts and gives due regard to the selected aspects of the judicial dialogue. Within the analysis of the relationship between the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court, emphasis is placed on the issue of the tension between the declared and the actual scope of judicial review carried out by the Constitutional Court. At the same time, a brief comparative excursion to the German doctrine defining the relationship between the Federal Court of Justice and the Federal Constitutional Court is presented. In dealing with the relationship between the Supreme Court and the lower courts, attention is paid to individual modes of unification of case law.
EN
The European Convention of Human Rights, together with the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights creates a special and entire legal system, which is particularly aimed to cultivation of decisions of bodies of public power in issues of natural and legal persons, or of other power intervention. The current jurisprudence particularly of the European Court of Human Rights undoubtedly shifts the concept of the legal state into the position of quantitative intensity not only of human rights and freedoms protection, but also particularly cultivation of public administration and decision activity of courts. Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights therefore sets not only on enforceability of the European law in member states, but also at requirements of organizational, intervention and decision legal level of activity of bodies of the public power. It is therefore possible to declare and confirm that the concept of the “European Legal State” is a specific European versions of constitutional protection of basic human values.
EN
Research background: Modern European integration focuses on competition in the internal single market, embracing both competitiveness and consumer protection, and it aims at full harmonization in this arena. The hallmark, the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive from 2005, aims to overcome diverse social, political, legal and economic traditions. Is the implied protection against misleading practices an opportunity or a threat for Central European Regions? Purpose of the article: The primary purpose is to comparatively describe and critically assess the transposed legal frameworks. The secondary purpose is to study and evaluate their coherence in the light of the case law and their impact in Central Europe, in particular whether it represents an opportunity or a threat for the smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, i.e. boosting competitiveness and innovation along with consumer welfare. Methods: The cross-disciplinary and multi-jurisdictional nature of this paper, and its dual purposes, implies the use of Meta-Analysis, of various interpretation techniques suitable for legal texts and judicial decisions, of the critical comparison and of a holistic assessment of approaches and impacts. Legislation and case law are explored and the yielded knowledge and data are confronted with a field search and case studies. The dominating qualitative research and data are complemented by the quantitative research and data. Findings & Value added: For over one decade, the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive has required full harmonization of the protection against, among other items, misleading commercial practices, by legislatures and judges in the EU. The exploration pursuant to the two purposes suggests that this ambitious legislative and case law project entails a number of transposition approaches with varying levels of coherence, importance and impacts on the competitiveness and innovation of business and consumer welfare in Central Europe. Therefore, full harmonization should be either readjusted or relaxed.
EN
In interwar Poland, civil status records were kept under five separate legal regimes, which the Second Polish Republic inherited from the different partitioning powers. Only the Prussian and Hungarian systems, which were in force in the western voivodeships and in Spiš and Orava, were fully secular and professional. In the central, eastern, and southern voivodeships, the civil status records of the majority of the population were combined with church records, and thus were kept by the clergy. The cluster of outdated regulations, which were ill-adapted to the new state and were often mutually exclusive, caused a host of registration problems in each of the five systems in operation. Due to the unsuccessful attempts to unify this system throughout the country, efforts were made to organize it not only through legislation and ministerial circulars, but also through court judgments, including those issued in the administrative court system. The present paper analyzes eight judgments of the Supreme Administrative Tribunal that have been published in the official Collection of Judgments, as well as four rulings of the Tribunal presented in other sources on civil status records and related issues. The resulting overview is intended to present how the various provisions on civil status records were interpreted in the conditions prevailing in interwar Poland, as well as to illuminate the nature of the cases considered and their relevance in terms of their impact on further operation of the civil status records system.
EN
In a common law jurisdiction, according to the principle of stare decisis judges are bound to interpret a constitutional or common law principle by applying authoritative cases already decided. Parties in disputes pending before the courts must find and assess the prior cases on which they can expect that judges will rely. Not very long ago, research for such precedent involved reviewing known cases and linking them to other cases using topical digests and citators. Success with this approach required a patient, persistent, thorough, and open-minded methodology. Modern information accessibility gives previously unimaginable quick access to cases, including with tools that promise to predict judicial tendencies. But this technological accessibility can have negative side effects, including a diminished research aptitude and a stilted capacity to synthesize information. It can also lead to an inadequate account of the human factors that often cause judges to depart from predictions based on logical inference from prior cases. This article considers the extent to which the identification of precedent is essential in legal analysis, yet is of limited value in predictability as a result of judges’ unavoidably human perspectives. With examples from landmark cases, the article illustrates that judges sometimes make decisions based on considerations that will not be revealed in a mechanistic application of precedent. The article considers how evolving legal research tools and methods give access to precedent that in some respects makes the process more scientific, but in other respects can obscure the realities of how cases are decided. The article also gives examples of this paradox as demonstrated by today’s students who are learning how to do research, drawn from years of the authors’ teaching experience.
PL
The aim of the publication is to present the results of research on the issue of the application of the provision of Article 297 of Polish Penal Code in practice and an attempt to evaluate them and an attempt to formulate conclusions. The features characterizing the offense under Article 297 § 1 of Polish Penal Code, which reads as follows: who, in order to obtain for himself or someone else, from a bank or organizational unit conducting similar economic activity under the Act or from an authority or institution with public funds - credit, monetary loan, surety, guarantee, letter of credit, subsidy, subsidy, confirmation by the bank of a liability arising from a surety or a guarantee or similar cash payment for  a  specific  business  purpose,  payment  instrument  or  public  contract,  submit  counterfeit, converted, attesting untruth or unreliable document or unreliable written statement regarding circumstances  of  significant  importance  in  order  to  obtain  the  mentioned  financial  support, payment instrument or order, it is punishable by imprisonment up from 3 months to 5 years. Discussed are also the indications of committing an act consisting in abandoning the notification in Article 297 § 2 of Polish Penal Code, worded as follows: who, in breach of a binding obligation, does not notify the relevant entity of the situation that may affect the cessation or limitation of the financial support referred to in § 1 or the public order or the possibility of further use of the electronic payment instrument. Next,  the  methodology  of  the  research  was  described  in  detail.  The  research  was  of  an  files nature  and  concerned  final  judgments  issued  by  courts  of  second  instance.  The  time  period of  researches was from 2012 to 2016. A purposeful selection was also made due to the legal qualification of the deed on the basis of which the conviction was handed down in the first instance, i.e. the offenses under Article 297 of Polish Penal Code. Then the results of the research were presented and an attempt was made to comment on the results obtained. The conclusions from the research indicated, among others, the cases of lack of correct understanding of the provision, confusion of concepts, unnecessary automatic cumulative classification of the deed, narrowing the use of the instruments mentioned in the provision to credits, loans and subsidies, and many more cases.   Celem publikacji jest przedstawienie wyników badań dotyczących problematyki zastosowania przepisu art. 297 k.k. w praktyce oraz podjęcie próby ich oceny i sformułowania wniosków. Opisano znamiona charakteryzujące przestępstwo z art. 297 § 1 k.k., który brzmi następująco: kto, w celu uzyskania dla siebie lub kogo innego, od banku lub jednostki organizacyjnej prowadzącej podobną działalność gospodarczą na podstawie ustawy albo od organu lub instytucji dysponujących środkami publicznymi – kredytu, pożyczki pieniężnej, poręczenia, gwarancji, akredytywy, dotacji, subwencji, potwierdzenia przez bank zobowiązania wynikającego z poręczenia lub z gwarancji lub podobnego świadczenia pieniężnego na określony cel gospodarczy, instrumentu płatniczego lub zamówienia publicznego, przedkłada podrobiony, przerobiony, poświadczający nieprawdę albo nierzetelny dokument albo nierzetelne, pisemne oświadczenie dotyczące okoliczności o istotnym znaczeniu dla uzyskania wymienionego wsparcia fnansowego, instrumentu płatniczego lub zamówienia, podlega karze pozbawienia wolności od 3 miesięcy do lat 5. Omówiono także znamiona popełnienia czynu polegającego na zaniechaniu powiadomienia z art. 297 § 2 k.k., o następującym brzmieniu: kto wbrew ciążącemu obowiązkowi, nie powiadamia właściwego podmiotu o powstaniu sytuacji mogącej mieć wpływ na wstrzymanie albo ograniczenie wysokości udzielonego wsparcia fnansowego, określonego w § 1, lub zamówienia publicznego albo na możliwość dalszego korzystania z instrumentu płatniczego. Następnie została dokładnie opisana metodologia przeprowadzonych badań. Badania miały charakter aktowy i dotyczyły prawomocnych orzeczeń wydanych przez sądy drugiej instancji. Cezurą czasową objęto okres od 2012 do 2016. Dokonano także wyboru celowego ze względu na kwalifkacje prawną czynu na podstawie, którego dokonano skazania w pierwszej instancji, tj. przestępstwa z art. 297 k.k. Następnie przedstawiono wyniki badań oraz podjęto próbę skomentowania otrzymanych rezultatów. Wnioski z badań wskazały, między innymi, na przypadki występowania braku prawidłowego zrozumienia przepisu, mylenie pojęć, niepotrzebnej automatycznej kumulatywnej kwalifkacji czynu, zawężenie stosowania instrumentów wymienionych w przepisie do kredytu, pożyczki oraz dotacji oraz a wiele innych.
EN
The aim of the publication is to present the results of research on the issue of the application of the provision of Article 297 of Polish Penal Code in practice and an attempt to evaluate them and an attempt to formulate conclusions. The features characterizing the offense under Article 297 § 1 of Polish Penal Code, which reads as follows: who, in order to obtain for himself or someone else, from a bank or organizational unit conducting similar economic activity under the Act or from an authority or institution with public funds - credit, monetary loan, surety, guarantee, letter of credit, subsidy, subsidy, confirmation by the bank of a liability arising from a surety or a guarantee or similar cash payment for  a  specific  business  purpose,  payment  instrument  or  public  contract,  submit  counterfeit, converted, attesting untruth or unreliable document or unreliable written statement regarding circumstances  of  significant  importance  in  order  to  obtain  the  mentioned  financial  support, payment instrument or order, it is punishable by imprisonment up from 3 months to 5 years. Discussed are also the indications of committing an act consisting in abandoning the notification in Article 297 § 2 of Polish Penal Code, worded as follows: who, in breach of a binding obligation, does not notify the relevant entity of the situation that may affect the cessation or limitation of the financial support referred to in § 1 or the public order or the possibility of further use of the electronic payment instrument. Next,  the  methodology  of  the  research  was  described  in  detail.  The  research  was  of  an  files nature  and  concerned  final  judgments  issued  by  courts  of  second  instance.  The  time  period of  researches was from 2012 to 2016. A purposeful selection was also made due to the legal qualification of the deed on the basis of which the conviction was handed down in the first instance, i.e. the offenses under Article 297 of Polish Penal Code. Then the results of the research were presented and an attempt was made to comment on the results obtained. The conclusions from the research indicated, among others, the cases of lack of correct understanding of the provision, confusion of concepts, unnecessary automatic cumulative classification of the deed, narrowing the use of the instruments mentioned in the provision to credits, loans and subsidies, and many more cases.
PL
Celem publikacji jest przedstawienie problematyki udziału Rzecznika Praw Dziecka w postępowaniu sądowoadministracyjnym. Na jej potrzeby dokonano analizy orzecznictwa dostępnego w Centralnej Bazie Orzeczeń Sądów Administracyjnych. Przywołane rozstrzygnięcia pokazują, że podejmowane przez Rzecznika Praw Dziecka w postępowaniu sądowoadministracyjnym działania są ukierunkowane na potrzebę ochrony praw najmłodszych, ale aktywność ta jest zarazem limitowana charakterem funkcjonowania w polskim porządku prawnym sądów administracyjnych i ich właściwością rzeczową.
EN
The publication aims at presenting the problem of participation of the Children’s Ombudsman in administrative court proceedings, based on the analysis of case law available in the Administrative Courts Case Law Database. Referenced judicial decisions demonstrate that while actions taken by the Children’s Ombudsman in the administrative court proceedings focus on the necessity of protecting the rights of the youngest ones, the Ombudsman’s activity is limited by the nature of the judicial activity of administrative courts within the polish legal framework and by their subject-matter jurisdiction.
17
Content available How Polish Courts Use Previous Judicial Decisions?
60%
EN
In this article, the authors analyse the manners of applying prior rulings in the process of law enforcement by the Polish courts. Three aspects of this issue are examined in sequence. Firstly, the manner of referring to rulings (e.g., quote, paraphrase, etc.). Secondly, situations, in which courts refer to other rulings (e.g., as a reference point, as an evidence of interpretative doubts, as a tool removing vagueness or ambiguity of a provision, as a methodological tip, as a legal basis of a ruling, etc.). Thirdly, the reasons for those acts of reference to appear. In conclusions, the authors juxtapose the analysis results with the practice of referring to judicial rulings, which is characteristic for countries applying the precedential law, and they also indicate basic differences between them.
PL
W niniejszym artykule autorzy analizują sposoby wykorzystania wcześniejszych orzeczeń w procesie stosowania prawa przez polskie sądy. Rozważają kolejno trzy aspekty tego zagadnienia. Po pierwsze, sposób, w jaki orzeczenia są powoływane (np. cytat, parafraza itd.). Po drugie, sytuacje, w których sądy odwołują się do innych orzeczeń (np. jako punkt wyjścia, jako dowód wątpliwości interpretacyjnych, jako narzędzie usuwające nieostrość czy wieloznaczność przepisu, jako wskazówka metodologiczna, jako podstawa prawna orzeczenia itd.). Po trzecie, powody, dla których odwołania te się pojawiają. We wnioskach autorzy zestawiają wyniki analizy z praktyką powoływania orzeczeń sądowych charakterystyczną dla krajów prawa precedensowego i wskazują na podstawowe różnice.
EN
The purpose of this article is to show that Spanish law is a paradigmatic example of the approach between traditional continental and Anglo-Saxon models of legal application. Two main factors have caused a deep transformation of Spanish legal system in the last decades: the position of Constitutional Court and its active role in legal creation, and the doctrine, which has been developed precisely by the Constitutional Court, on equality principle in the application of law. These changes show that the rigid traditional distinction among civil law and common law systems cannot be kept any more.
PL
Celem niniejszego artykułu jest wskazanie, że prawo hiszpańskie jest paradygmatycznym przykładem podejścia pośredniego między stosowaniem prawa w sposób tradycyjny (czyli kontynentalny) a modelem anglosaskim. Do dwóch głównych czynników, które spowodowały głęboką transformację hiszpańskiego systemu prawnego, należą: stanowisko Sądu Konstytucyjnego i jego aktywna postawa w tworzeniu prawa, a także doktryna precyzyjnie opracowana przez ten sąd na podstawie zasady równości w stosowaniu prawa. Zmiany te ukazują, że wyraźne tradycyjne rozróżnienie pomiędzy prawem cywilnym a systemem common law nie ma już racji bytu.
PL
Służebność przesyłu została wprowadzone do polskiego porządku prawnego z dniem 3 sierpnia 2008 r. ustawą z dnia 30 maja 2008 r. o zmianie ustawy - Kodeks cywilny oraz niektórych innych ustaw (Dz. U. Nr 116, poz. 731). Służebność przesyłu stanowi ograniczone prawo rzeczowe, obciążające określoną nieruchomość. Zgodnie z art. 3051 Kodeksu cywilnego (dalej „KC") nieruchomość można obciążyć na rzecz przedsiębiorcy, który zamierza wybudować lub którego własność stanowią urządzenia, o których mowa w art. 49 § 1 KC (tj. urządzenia przesyłowe), prawem polegającym na tym, że przedsiębiorca może korzystać w oznaczonym zakresie z nieruchomości obciążonej, zgodnie z przeznaczeniem tych urządzeń. W praktyce oznacza to możliwość wejścia przez przedsiębiorcę na cudzy grunt obciążony służebnością w celu posadowienia tam urządzeń przesyłowych, usunięcia ich awarii, przeprowadzenia konserwacji czy też modernizacji (por. postanowienie Sądu Najwyższego z dnia 17 lutego 2011 r., IV CSK 303/10, nie publ.)
EN
The following article is an analysis of differences in interpretation of article 17 of the act family benefit of 28 November 2003. Recently have evolved two different position on this matter – one refusing farmers the rights to these benefits, and the second – giving them that power. In this paper the author briefly discusses both of this rights to these benefits, and the second – giving them that power.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia wykładnię art. 17 ustawy z dnia 28 listopada 2003 r. o świadczeniach rodzinnych dokonaną przez sądy administracyjne w Poznaniu, Lublinie oraz Gdańsku. Na uwagę zasługuje fakt, iż w dwóch podobnych sprawach sądy orzekły odmiennie. W wyroku Wojewódzkiego Sądu Administracyjnego w Lublinie z dnia 5 grudnia 2012 r. wykładnia art. 17 zmierzała w kierunku jego literalnego brzmienia. Natomiast Wojewódzki Sąd Administracyjny w Poznaniu w wyroku z dnia 12 grudnia 2012 r. dokonał wykładni celowościowej oraz systemowej, dochodząc do odmiennych wniosków.
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