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EN
Mobile instant messaging (MIM) is currently one of the most influential areas of technology. MIM applications have experienced substantial growth in the number of users; however, research on consumer behavior regarding the use of these applications is relatively scarce. The present study seeks to fill this gap, with the objective of identifying, understanding, and establishing the determinants of MIM use. The current study takes place in Ecuador, a developing Latin American country, and focuses on WhatsApp, the leading MIM application. The study is based on a sequential exploratory mixed method design with 25 in-depth interviews and a subsequent survey of 504 adults. The qualitative phase allows the establishment of a qualitative theoretical model in which the core category studied to understand the tendency of people to use WhatsApp is the perception of its utility. The qualitative phase and a literature review are the basis for formulating the study hypotheses. Finally, the quantitative analysis, based on structural equation modeling, yields the conclusion that network externalities, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use are the constructs that explain the tendency of individuals to use WhatsApp. (original abstract)
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Content available remote Indywidualistyczne i plemienne aspekty zachowań konsumenckich
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Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie dwóch perspektyw patrzenia na zachowania konsumenckie: indywidualistycznej i plemiennej oraz pokazanie, że podejścia te nie zawsze wzajemnie się wykluczają. Na poparcie tezy autorka przytacza wyniki badań przeprowadzanych w Polsce i na świecie, jak również przedstawia wyniki badań własnych. W ostatniej części artykułu skupia się na omówieniu konsekwencji przyjęcia jednej lub drugiej perspektywy dla konstruowania strategii marketingowej przedsiębiorstw, pokazując różnice między marketingiem relacji a marketingiem plemiennym.(abstrakt autora)
EN
The paper presents two perspectives of analyzing consumer behavior: individualistic and tribal, and shows that these approaches are not always mutually exclusive. In support of this argument the author cites the results of studies conducted in Poland and worldwide, as well as presents the results of own research. The last part of the paper focuses on the consequences of adopting one or other of the approaches for development of companies' marketing strategies, showing the differences between relationship marketing and tribal marketing.(author's abstract)
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Content available remote Zachowania konsumentów na rynku produktów regionalnych i tradycyjnych
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W opracowaniu dokonano oceny zachowań konsumentów na rynku produktów regionalnych i tradycyjnych w woj. podkarpackim. W analizie empirycznych wyników badania dotyczących 600 konsumentów z woj. podkarpackiego wykazano kategorię nabywanych produktów regionalnych i tradycyjnych, miejsca realizacji zakupów, częstotliwość i motywy zaopatrywania się w tego rodzaju artykuły spożywcze oraz zjawisko etnocentryzmu występujące wśród badanych. Na podstawie badania należy stwierdzić że w woj. podkarpackim ma miejsce dynamiczny rozwój rynku omawianych produktów w kontekście sprzyjających warunków naturalnych, dziedzictwa kulinarnego oraz przy dużym zaangażowaniu władz samorządowych. Konsumenci wykorzystują wszystkie możliwe źródła zaopatrzenia. Preferują zwłaszcza wysoką jakość, bezpieczeństwo spożycia, smak, świeżość i lokalne pochodzenie. Wykazali się także etnocentryzmem, gdyż regionalne i lokalne pochodzenie produktów ma dla nich istotne znaczenie. (abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
The study assesses the behaviour of consumers on the market of regional and traditional products in Podkarpackie province. In the analysis of the empirical results of the study on 600 consumers from Podkarpackie province there were indicated categories of purchased regional and traditional products, shopping venues, frequency and motives of buying this type of food and the phenomenon of ethnocentrism occurring among respondents. Based on the study it should be stated that in Podkarpackie province there is a dynamic development in the market of the above-mentioned products in the context of favourable natural conditions, culinary heritage and strong involvement of local authorities. Consumers use all possible sources of supply. They especially appreciate high quality, consumption safety, taste, freshness and local origin. They also showed ethnocentrism, as local and regional origin of the products is essential for them. (original abstract)
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Przedmiotem opracowania są hierarchia uznawanych wartości i aspiracji konsumentów oraz ich wpływ na zachowania na rynku. Przedstawiono problem zróżnicowania zachowań związanych z zakupem produktu w zależności od typu konsumentów, na przykładzie żywności. (abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
The subject matters of elaboration are the consumers' accepted values and aspirations and impact thereof on their behaviour in the market. The author presents the issue of differentiation of behaviours related to purchase of the product depending on the type of consumers, on the example of foods. (original abstract)
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Proces decyzyjny zakupu trwa określony czas. Zanim konsument podejmie ostateczną decyzję co kupić?, gdzie kupić? poszukuje oraz porównuje informacje w celu zminimalizowania ryzyka nietrafnego wyboru. Artykuł zawiera informacje na temat postępowania konsumentów przed podjęciem decyzje o zakupie produktów w Internecie. Zwrócono w nim uwagę na sposoby poszukiwania produktów kupowanych w Internecie, czynniki wyboru sklepu internetowego jako miejsca zakupu, a także sposoby kontaktowania się ze sprzedawcami przed dokonaniem zakupu. Zaprezentowane informacje zostały pozyskane w trybie badań bezpośrednich w ramach projektu badawczego nr N N112 041535 finansowanego przez MNiSW pt. "Polski e-konsument - typologia, zachowania " pod kierunkiem dr M. Jaciow z Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Katowicach. Badania miały zasięg ogólnopolski, zrealizowane zostały techniką ankiety online na próbie 1350 dorosłych użytkowników Internetu. W próbie badawczej znalazło się 50% kobiet i 50% mężczyzn, blisko połowa respondentów miała 24 lata i mniej, niemal tyle samo 25 i więcej lat. (abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
The consumer purchase decision making process takes a certain period of time. Before the consumer makes a final decision on what to purchase and where to purchase it, he does the comparison shopping in order to minimize the risk of a wrong choice. The paper discusses the information on consumer behaviour prior to an online purchase decision. It analyses the methods of browsing for products on the Internet, the factors determining the choice of a retailer and the ways of communicating with sellers before making a purchase. The information was collected through field research within the research project no N N112 041535, "The Polish e-consumer - typology, behaviour", which was financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education and headed by M. Jaciow, PhD, the University of Economics in Katowice. The research was conducted as a nationwide online survey involving the sample of 1350 adult Internet users. The sample comprised 50% of female and 50% of male respondents, nearly half the respondents were 24 years of age or younger and almost as many were 25 years of age or older. (original abstract)
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Artykuł przedstawia możliwości wykorzystania studium przypadku w gromadzeniu wiedzy o zmianach zachowań nabywczych konsumentów. Metodologię studium przypadku, opartą na procedurze triangulacji danych i metod badawczych, zalicza się do nurtu interpretacyjnego, odmiennego od podejścia pozytywistycznego. W artykule przedstawiono podstawowe założenia podejścia interpretacyjnego oraz jego zastosowanie w badaniach zmian zachowań nabywczych konsumentów podlegających akulturacji.(abstrakt oryginalny)
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The article presents the possibilities of using a case study to acquire knowledge about the changes in consumers' purchasing behaviour. A case study methodology based on the triangulation of data and research methods is classified into the research strand of an interpretative approach, which is different from a normative approach. The article describes basic guidelines of the interpretative approach and its application in the study of purchasing behavior changes in consumers acculturation.(original abstract)
EN
The development of modern information and communications technologies, and of the internet in particular, is having a major impact on the changes in the processes of running business. Together with the development of the internet, the market for services has been changing, bringing about new possibilities of delivering services, as more and more activities can be performed on-line. Also the consumer requirements are changing, as they expect a more interesting scope of service portfolios, which are better adapted to their needs. The purpose of this article is to present the changes in the consumer behaviours that have been taking place in the selected e -services market in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, based on results of research carried out in Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland and Ukraine. On its basis, it was possible to determine the differences in the level of access to modern information and communications technologies and in the development of e-services and their use in the researched countries. (original abstract)
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Content available remote Motywy jako determinanta zachowań uczestników turystyki kulturowej
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Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie wybranych obszarów zachowań turystów podróżujących w celach recepcji kultury destynacji turystycznych oraz weryfikacja hipotezy, że zachowania te są różnicowane motywem uczestnictwa w turystyce kulturowej. Opierając się na wynikach badań własnych, zidentyfikowano profile uczestników turystyki kulturowej (tj. turystów ukierunkowanych na poznanie dziedzictwa kulturowego miejsca recepcji, uczestników imprez i wydarzeń kulturalnych oraz podróżujących w celach religijno-pielgrzymkowych), a także wzory ich zachowań odnośnie do podróży turystycznych. Szczególną uwagę zwrócono na częstotliwość wyjazdów turystycznych, przygotowanie do wyjazdu, formę organizacji wyjazdów, najczęściej wykorzystywane środki transportu i inne.(abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
The aim of this article is to present selected areas of the behaviour of tourists who travel for the purpose of reception of tourist destinations' culture and to verify the hypothesis that this behaviour differs according to the motive for participation in cultural tourism. Own research helped to identify the profiles of the participants of cultural tourism (i.e. tourists focusing on cultural heritage, participating in cultural events and travelling for religious-pilgrimage reasons) and also the models of their behaviour regarding travelling. Attention was paid in particular to the frequency of trips, preparations, form of travel organisation, and the most often used means of transport and accommodation.(original abstract)
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Content available remote Consumer Behaviour Rationality in Poland
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EN
Progressive process of civilization and cultural change, socio-economic development, increase awareness, and quality of life, and many other conditions, influence the modern consumer and his behavior. In reality changing the meaning of rationality gaininga problem. A comprehensive knowledge of consumers and their behavior is essential for a firm to succeed. A good understanding of consumer behavior should help correctly predict consumer response to the actions taken by the companies. It is not possible to react to customers' needs without a complete understanding of their behavior. The purpose of this article is to present synthetic reflections on the rationality of consumers in Poland from different selected points of view, as well as an attempt to evaluate some of its aspects.(original abstract)
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Na podstawie badań CBOS, autorka wyróżnia i omawia typowe postawy i zachowania polskich konsumentów. Przedstawia proces zakupu każdego produktu, rolę promocji w miejscu sprzedaży, przyczyny wizyty konsumenta w placówce handlowej.
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Content available remote Authenticity in Marketing : a Response to Consumer Resistance?
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EN
Prior research points out the emerging phenomenon of consumer resistance in terms of resistance towards the marketing discipline. At the same time, extant literature suggests the increasing importance of authenticity in marketing. This study investigates the research question whether and by which means authenticity in marketing can be a response to consumer resistance. The authors conducted qualitative research within which one part of the interviews was conducted with marketing-resistant participants, another one with non-resistant respondents. This permitted to elaborate on divergences between the two groups concerning the evaluation of authenticity. The results illustrate that resistant consumers showed a greater sensitivity for authenticity and clear preferences for authentic brands compared to a more indifferent assessment of the comparison group. Resistant consumers were more likely to identify themselves with the presented authentic brands and appreciated their benefi ts such as autonomy, closeness, quality assurance, individuality and economic rebellion that directly contrast with the elaborated points of criticism about marketing. This suggests that, in order to regain consumers that are critical towards the marketing discipline, the elaborated authenticity facets could be applied to brands as an 'antidote'. (original abstract)
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Zasadniczym celem niniejszego artykułu była identyfikacja kluczowych determinant zachowań młodych konsumentów w zakresie wyboru centrów handlowych jako miejsc korzystania z oferty handlowo- usługowej. Identyfikacja ta oparta była na analizie dostępnej literatury przedmiotu oraz weryfikacji siły oddziaływania wybranych determinant na określone zachowania konsumentów. W artykule postawiono cztery hipotezy badawcze, a także zaproponowano model teoretyczny, który następnie poddano weryfikacji z wykorzystaniem modelowania strukturalnego (SEM). Opracowany model poddano również analizie w zakresie poziomu rzetelności oraz dobroci dopasowania. W oparciu o przeprowadzone analizy statystyczne stwierdzono, że zmodyfikowany model równań strukturalnych posiadał wszystkie współczynniki istotne statystycznie, co pozwoliło uznać go za względnie satysfakcjonujący. Umożliwiło to pozytywne zweryfikowanie trzech spośród czterech hipotez badawczych. W efekcie zastosowanego modelowania strukturalnego zaobserwowano istotne statystycznie relacje między wyszczególnionymi grupami czynników, takimi jak: czynniki personalne, specyfika centrum handlowego i czynniki sytuacyjne, a odwiedzaniem centrum handlowego przez młodych konsumentów. Co więcej, w opinii respondentów specyfika centrum handlowego i czynniki sytuacyjne charakteryzowały się znacząco większą siłą oddziaływania na badane zachowania niż czynniki personale. W modelowaniu wykorzystano dane pozyskane w ramach badań empirycznych przeprowadzonych na grupie 550 respondentów.(abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
The main purpose of the article was to identify the key determinants of young consumers' behaviour in terms of choosing shopping centres as places for using the commercial and service offer. This identification was based on an analysis of the available literature on the subject and verification of the impact of selected determinants on specific consumer behaviour. The article presented four research hypotheses and a theoretical model, which was then verified using structural modelling (SEM). The developed model was also analysed in terms of the level of reliability and good fit. Based on the statistical analyses it was found that the modified structural equation model had all statistically significant coefficients, which allowed it to be considered relatively satisfying. This enabled the positive verification of three out of four research hypotheses. As a result of the applied structural modelling, statistically significant relationships were observed between the specified groups of factors, such as: personal factors, the specificity of the shopping centre and situational factors, and the visit of the shopping centre by young consumers. What is more, in the respondents' opinion, the specificity of the shopping centre and situational factors were characterized by a significantly greater impact force on the tested respondents' behaviour than personal factors. The modelling used data obtained as part of empirical research conducted on a group of 550 respondents.(original abstract)
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W artykule omówione zostały wybrane teorie dotyczące zachowań człowieka: Teoria Uzasadnionego Działania oraz Teoria Planowanego Działania. Przedstawiono, oparty na nich, Model Akceptacji Technologii wraz z możliwymi modyfikacjami. Zaprezentowane zostały możliwości wykorzystania powyższych modeli na potrzeby analizy użytkowników systemów informatycznych w Polsce. (abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
The paper discusses selected theories of human behavior: Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior. Based on previous models the Technology Acceptance Model with its possible extensions has been presented. The possibility of using these models for the analysis of users of information systems in Poland have been also presented. (original abstract)
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Patologie w zachowaniach konsumentów są bardzo powszechnym zjawiskiem i występują praktycznie na każdym rynku. Konsumenci dążą do zaspokajania swoich potrzeb i często stają przed wyborem, czy postępować zgodnie z tym, co powszechnie uznawane jest za słuszne i racjonalne, a tym, co mogłoby stanowić odstępstwo od tych powszechnie obowiązujących norm. Zjawisko patologii konsumenckich jest stosunkowo słabo opisane w literaturze, zwłaszcza w literaturze polskiej. Dlatego też niniejszy artykuł ma na celu charakterystykę tego zjawiska i stanowi wstęp teoretyczny do dalszych badań empirycznych. (abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
Pathologies in consumer behaviour are very common and appear on all markets. Consumers tend to satisfy their needs and often have to make a choice between what is right and rational, and what could be a deviation from acceptable norms. The phenomena of pathologies in consumer behaviour are not well described in literature, especially in Polish one. For this reason this article aims at describing the phenomena of consumer misbehavior and constitutes an introduction to further empirical research. (original abstract)
EN
In the setting of cultural conditions of contemporary man that co-exist with his behavioural conduct, the economic model that is strengthened in various regions that are globally unified by higher and higher effectiveness of information transfer is particularly important. The change in economic model influences the form of work performance more and more. In some already broad areas of occupational activity the work is no longer a function of production created by members of such a society but it aims at appropriate satisfaction of needs that sometimes are mistakenly identified with relaxation. Consumption is just more and more often associated with relaxation in a larger degree. This increases the emphasis on the need to expand employment in the sphere of services that ought to satisfy these societies' needs which are distorted in technologically developed cultures. It ought to be observed that the model of employment in the sphere of services permeates into this part of structure of global society that is culturally different from contemporary consumer behaviours in civilisationally developed regions. (fragment of text)
EN
This article constitutes an attempt to answer the question whether social initiatives undertaken by a company influence the consumer attitude towards it. The afore-mentioned aim has been achieved by presenting the results of experimental research. Six scenarios of social initiatives undertaken by a food sector company were used in the research. Research work was conducted using a sample of real consumers. It was shown that information about undertaking a single social initiative by a company does not lead to a more favourable consumer attitude towards it. The results obtained show that when undertaking a social programme, which is not consistent with the company's actions to date, the attitude towards it can even become worse. (original abstract)
EN
Aim/purpose - The main aim of the paper is to fill in the gap in the existing literature as well as to propose a set of specific family enterprises' (FE) attributes concerning certain socioeconomic conditions in Poland. The objectives of the article are interrelated with two theses. H1 assumes that in current literature there is a little attention paid to the demand side of the market, particularly to the individual consumers (including young buyers) and their attitudes toward FEs. H2 indicates that the perception of Polish FEs changes considerably reflecting the international trends. Design/methodology/approach - The authors studied a consolidated profound review of recent international and Polish publications on FEs. The expert interviews and in-depth individual interviews were conducted. Both empirical studies brought a preliminary insight into overall consumer perception of the FEs in Poland. Findings - For several years Polish buyers have been dynamically changing their mindset, breaking the stereotype of FEs' owners. Nowadays, tradition and quality are two attributes which are associated closely with Polish FEs. Customers indicate that FEs are trustworthy, responsible, solid and dependable. They also highlight the ethnocentric attitude toward these companies - Polishness. All these attributes are evidently appreciated. FEs are correlated with traditional industries and products, especially with groceries, cosmetics, clothes, shoes, jewelry, furniture, windows and doors. Research implications/limitations - The identity of FEs is not always communicated properly. Consumers often cannot ascertain a provenance of their offer as many FEs do not emphasize their family identity. Additionally, on the Polish market, consumers are occasionally misled considering the family ownership of a business. Originality/value/contribution - The studies indicate a set of attributes typical of Polish FEs underpinning their strong identity which should be explicitly conveyed to the public, with special regard to young consumers.(original abstract)
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Theoretical background: Games are used in various fields beyond pure entertainment: education, health services or human resources. They are also considered one of the most rapidly growing trends in marketing. Using gamifiation to engage the consumer and increase his loyalty is commonly used in nearly all product categories. Playing games is fun and companies use it to attract and involve the consumers in their brands' activities. In addition, the role of gamification in market research is increasing. It helps to understand consumer behaviour by inducing a more natural mood in the survey process, and increasing engagement and the cognitive accessibility of often hidden information. The effectiveness of gamification requires systematic verifiation in the experimental research. Researchers indicate the positive effect of gamified research on respondents' engagement and efficiency. Purpose of the article: This article presents the current state of knowledge in the field of gamification in market research. Its main purpose is to share the author's own research results which are the replication of former results showing the positive effects of gamified tasks used in surveys. Research methods: An experiment was conducted to verify the hypotheses regarding the increased effectiveness of gamified tasks compared to the regular approach as well as to the well-known projective techniques. A total of 132 participants were split into three groups: control, experimental 1 (projective techniques or simple gamification - addition of extra rules to regular questions) and experimental 2 (more complex, narrative and contextual tasks based on gamification). Main findings: The hypothesis was confirmed and the former effects were replicated - gamified tasks increase the respondents' effectiveness compared to the standard tasks and also compared to the use of the well-known projective techniques. (original abstract)
EN
Theoretical background: The idea of multichanneling gained popularity in the late 1990s mostly due to the development of the Internet. Distribution changed from using single to several channels and integrating them, which allowed consumers to access multiple channels at every stage of the buyer decision process. Using multiple channels is referred to as multi-, cross-, or omni-channelling, depending on the level of channel interaction and integration. Transforming distribution from multi-, to omni-channelling can require important and expensive changes in the organization. In Poland, most of the retailers do not meet the requirements of omnichanneling, which leaves the consumers mostly with the experience of multi-, and cross-channelling distribution. Purpose of the article: The purpose of this article is to explore the consumer journey of Millennials in multichannel shopping by examining the usage of distribution channels by Generation Y and preferences about the delivery of products bought online. The factors that can encourage them to choose online channel and click-and-collect delivery more often are also investigated. Research methods: To test the hypotheses, literature research and quantitative study was implemented using an online survey (CASI). The study involved a group of 266 respondents from Generation Y and was conducted in January 2019. Research results were also compared to the prior research found in the literature. Main findings: Research results show that online channels are more popular for information seeking by Millennials but traditional stores are preferred by them for purchase decisions. There is also diversity in the channels used for purchasing researched group of products, which shows that integrating the channels in selected aspects may provide a more positive buying experience and create loyalty. Aspects differentiating multi- and cross-channels from omnichannels, such as lower prices and special offers in online stores, can increase the usage of online channels. The popularity of mobile devices is not well used in distribution channels - it is more popular to use a store's website on a smartphone than a mobile application to purchase a product. Generation Y is also more likely to use the effect of ROPO (webrooming) than reversed-ROPO (showrooming). The aspects well known for omnichanneling can increase the popularity of click-and-collect among Millennials.(original abstract)
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Theoretical background: The use of social media is increasing rapidly. The total number of users has surpassed more than 500 million worldwide. Social media communication is growing faster than any other form of communication. Websites such as Facebook, Instagram, YouTube and Snapchat are examples of the social media sites that are popular among all level of consumers, but especially among young consumers. Social media are definitely influencing customer behaviour. Social media has changed the way consumers think, and companies have changed their vision to reflect how it will affect their buying decision process. This article presents the characteristics of young consumers in a virtual environment. Purpose of the article: The main goal of the article is to identify the role of social media used by fashion brands at every stage of the consumer buying decision process. The authors investigated the impact of social media on changing customer behaviour. The existing literature currently lacks a comprehensive conceptual framework to explain how social media could change consumer behaviour. Only a few studies have been conducted so far, but they have focused on the older generation, not on the youngest consumer. Nowadays, the young consumer constitutes an important but, at the same time, separate part of the market. The authors highlight the most important distinctive features of teenagers representing the so-called Generation Z. Research methods: The authors used qualitative analysis; more specifically, the technique of focus group interview. Three interviews were conducted, each consisting of eight students from Poznań universities. The main goal of this research was to identify the role of social media used by fashion brands at every stage of the consumer buying decision process. Main findings: The influence of social media on buying behaviour can be observed for fashion products. Social media play an important role in the decision-making process of young consumers. Social media have changed customer behaviour. They are an invaluable source of information and recommendations for products for young consumers. Furthermore, social media generate new needs and cause unscheduled purchases, mainly impulse purchases - for example, inflenced by a discount or an interesting presentation of the product. In addition, social media are a place for expressing opinions and sharing shopping experiences for young consumers. This knowledge about young consumers' behaviour and attitudes to the use of social media in the decision buying process of fashion brands can be very valuable advice for companies to help them adjust tools of social media communications to their target group.(original abstract)
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