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The current financial crisis has highlighted again the relationship between value and price of financial instruments. This article is therefore devoted to the problems of modern methods of assessing one of the leading securities-shares. The most commonly used models are variants of free cash flow models. The authors recommended the use of free cash flow models in the categories of the key value driver formula. At the same time they propose a new method to yield a model that would use newly created value to the company as a form of income.
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One of crucial elements of marketing strategy is pricing policy. Implementation of this policy includes the pricing of products and determinants of their role and position in relation to other marketing tools. To be effective in pricing, it is necessary to understand what the price is and what factors affect the price level and its consumer perception. Assuming that the price is the cost for consumer, the article presents the notion and elements of the price. Another discussed issue was a time considered as a factor influencing of costs, financial terms of the transaction as well as price perception. By using the example of leasing offers it has been shown the possible impact of terms of payment on financial parameters of the offer. The article also points to several options of price discrimination which justifies the use of different prices for the same type of products. Finally it also identifies the advantages resulting from the adoption of discussed solutions.
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The analysis of price policy efficiency of small enterprise which produces cosmetic products is conducted in the article. On the basis of analysis the conceptual economic and organizational measures are offered to the improvement of pricing strategy.
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Modern conditions of development are characterized by an aggravation of some ecology-economic contradictions. Limitation of resources for satisfaction of ecological needs causes necessity of the reference to a category of the ecological capital. The contents of the ecological capital in wide socio-economic and narrow market aspects is considered in the article. The offered system of the ecological capital reproduction assumes formation of ecological pricing system as a result of institutionalizing of ecological demand by downturn of profitableness rate in ecological sphere.
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The main goal of this paper was to examine the market position of one leading meat processing enterprise PKM Duda SA. on the domestic meat market. The assessment of the activity portfolio on its three strategic units was undertaken with the usage of BCG matrix. The PKM Duda SA. was chosen for the study because: a) processes more than 20 tons of slaughter per week, b) is located in the country of origin, c) exists on Warsaw Stock Exchange Market, d) preserves continuity of its database in Monitor Polski „B”. The analysis proved that all three examined strategic units have different market shares and operate on markets of a different acceleration. The highest income rate brings the meat processing unit (B), the lowest slaughter unit (A). The market position of PKM Duda SA. can be improved when a retail trade unit (B) moves away from question marks into stars. Although BCG matrix draws a fast and a complex strategic situation, is not free from disadvantages. That is the reason why further, also portfolio, analysis should be implemented.
EN
Similar to other developed countries, the Czech Republic implements socioeconomic policies aimed at minimizing smoking. The objective of this research is to provide evidence of the real impact of increasing cigarette taxes on cigarette consumption and its structure in the Czech Republic. The unique database consisting of manufacturers’ subscribed cigarette stamps and all posted brand prices were collected by the authors over the past two decades and was utilized in the analysis. The analysis shows that a continuous rise in cigarette market prices does not motivate consumers to prefer low price brands or to reduce cigarette consumption. The research provides evidence that smokers did not minimize smoking but even spent more money on cigarettes, preferring more expensive brands or staying loyal to a favoured one. This implies necessary changes in the market basket of the smokers’ households.
EN
Non-renewable energy resources and their prices are more and more important factor of the global economy and national economies growth. Taxation of the energy products and their impact on the energy prices are reflecting in competitiveness of producers, individual branches, their profitability, creation of sources for investments, for innovations and also for creativity. The paper is signalizing the potential structural impacts of taxes/prices of energy inputs on the price competitiveness of customer branches in the Slovak Republic. The input-output price model as the basic methodological approach is used in this paper.
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Assumptions and relations of the Balassa-Samuelson model permit under-stand the development of real convergence in Central European countries. Quantification of the Balassa-Samuelson effect (BSE) found its intensive formation in the years 1996 – 2008 and the cessation of it in the crisis period 2009 – 2013. It was confirmed the BSE size depends on productivity increasing in the segment of economy producing negotiable goods. The economic crisis weakened market mechanism, which in times of economic prosperity give rise to BSE. Therefore are seeking both industrial policy capable of supporting the creation of BSE and parts of economy suitable for its use. While continuing to promote foreign investment it is advised to encourage innovative activity and employment widening in the domestic business sector, especially in its SMEs.
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The basic problems of the heat power complex of the country are designated in article. The model of the multitariff account of thermal energy is offered. The multitariff account is possible only for those users who have counters of thermal energy and hot water. Tariff price control to the thermal energy has a number of advantages, basic of which are: protection of consumers against unreasonable overestimate of the prices for energy; rational use of power resources; alignment of the schedule of daily loading. The method of day and night rates of regulation of pricing is considered. The work is actual, especially for our country at which thermal energy market has not up to the end generated yet.
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Content available GMO a miedzynarodowy rynek soi
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The analyses presented in the article concerned changes in the level and structure of turnover, and price relations on the international soy market. It was stated that popularisation of genetically modified soy strains had no negative impact on the volume of international turnover. However, trade directions changed considerably, especially in the European Union Member States. While significance of import from USA has decreased, the meaning of import from Brazil has increased. At the same time, however, in accordance with the analyses of price transmission, in 2004/05-2011/12 the impact of price signals generated by the Brazilian market on the EU prices decreased in comparison to 1996/97-2003/04, while the impact of the American market prices increased. The reason for these changes might have been the amendments to regulations concerning cultivation of genetically modified soy in Brazil, and stabilisation of regulations concerning the genetically modified products market in the EU.
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The profitability of milk production is determined by the production volume on a farm, pricing, and incurred costs. The production volume directly corresponds to the milk-yield level of cows and herd size. These factors are characterised by a positive interrelation. The study reveals that an increase in the milk yield of cows stimulates income growth and, despite the higher costs of animal upkeep, it is connected with a more efficient usage of the workforce. Higher costs stem primarily from the introduction of highly-productive (genetically potent) specimens into the herd, and higher production intensity. The study revealed that the improvement in the milk yield of cows was related to a considerably larger proportion of purchased concentrate feeds in the animals’ feed ration, with a marked predomination of concentrates and compound feeds. In bulk feed, on the other hand, the highest proportion comprised silage and hay silage. Such feed facilitated an improvement in cow milk yield and also had a positive impact on milk production profitability. The growing volume of milk produced on a farm was accompanied by an increase in its price. As a consequence, the economic performance of milk production in holdings comprising fairly large herds of cows (around 30 cows) of high milk yield (approximately 7000 litres) was significantly more favourable than that of holdings with smaller herds and lower milk yield.
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The anchoring effect belongs to one of the most extensively studied cognitive biases in judgment and has been shown to be robust in a variety of domains and conditions. This current study on 100 adolescents in Slovakia (aged 16 – 18, 62% females) investigates the role of the anchor relevance and the familiarity of products on one’s willingness-to-pay. The presence of the anchoring and adjustment heuristic has been confirmed in the Slovak cultural environment. The magnitude of the anchoring effect is not affected by previous experience with the product. However, the effect is higher when the anchors are relevant. By this, the effect was higher when the anchor was the price paid by other people, rather than when it was the result of obviously irrelevant mathematical operations.
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This paper deals with the development of oil prices and the factors which have impact on these prices. The main objective of this paper is to identify the impact of movement of exchange rate of US Dollar on crude oil prices. To reach the mentioned objective we have had used theoretical and empirical analyses and methods such as regression model, Granger causality and structural models to identify to what the extent the oil prices depend on the value of US Dollar, as one of the factors influencing the oil prices in the international markets, particularly in the last two decades. We find that US Dollar has a significant impact on oil prices.
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This paper analyses the development and the current state of axiology in Slovak museums in its historical and legislative context. Additionally, we attempt to define the values that are – or should be – applied to the valuation of objects in museum collections, as well as said valuation’s philosophical, economic and museological underpinnings. The final section of the paper then proposes a pricing tool specifically designed for the evaluation of pricing offers and purchase prices of museum objects during the creation of museum collections.
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The Czech cereal market integration into the common agricultural market (EU) is studied using monthly price data for wheat and barley in Belgium, Germany, Austria and the Czech Republic in 1993 – 2010. Stability in the law of the one price (LOP) equation is studied through multiple structural breaks within the equation. The results indicate that the integration of the Czech Republic into EU cereal markets is more unstable than that of Austria (a fourth enlargement country), although there is more empirical support for the LOP when structural breaks are taken into account. The structural change also occurred in the old EU LOP equation between Belgium and Germany.
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In the article the real and potential threats and risks, that affect the formation of national security strategies. Given the state of the national economy, political and social situation in Ukraine, certain key economic and organizational determinants new model of economic security, in particular its energy component. The problem of energy dependence of the state economy and high energy are still the main factors restraining the socio-economic development. The issue of energy security updated in recession and unstable political situation in the country. Based on the current state of the energy sector, the study developed a set of practical recommendations (economic, technological, financial, political, and environmental), organizational and economic measures to reform the energy sector for sustainable functioning.
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