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Content available Induced mutagenesis in Cicer arietinum
The traditional varieties of chick pea have low potentiality and restricted variability with respect to economic characters. Broadening the genetic base for crop improvement can be quickly achieved through induced mutagenesis. The present study was undertaken in order to comparing the effectiveness and efficiency of mutagens on Cicer arietinum. In this regard, Co – 4 variety of chick pea was subjected to different dose/concentration of Gamma rays (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kR) and Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mM) for inducing mutation. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency was calculated based on biological damage in M1 and chlorophyll mutations in M2. The results indicated that, mutagenic effectiveness increased with the increase in dose/concentration of mutagen. Intermediate treatments in general were found more efficient in causing less biological damage and inducing maximum amount of mutations. It shows that the chemical mutagens are more effective and efficient than physical mutagen for inducing mutation in Chick pea.
Acid and alkaline phosphatase and phytase activities were determined in the bacteroid free fractions of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) nodules at 15 days intervals, from 40 days after sowing (DAS) to 85 DAS. In general, the activities and specific activity of both the acid and alkaline phosphatases declined at 55 DAS. Out of the various substrates studied, ATP was the best substrate for both phosphatases. Activities of phosphatases with glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate were low in comparison to these with fructose 1,6 bisphosphate. The efficiency of acid phosphatase for utilizing fructose 1,6 bis phosphate as a substrate increased with nodule development. A fructose 1,6 bis phosphate specific acid phosphatase with elution volume to void volume (Ve/Vo) ratio of around 2.0 was observed in mature nodules (80 DAS). Acid phosphatase at 40 DAS was resolved into two peaks which were eluted at Ve/Vo of about 1.5 and 1.8. However, at 60 DAS the peak with Ve/Vo of 1.5 could not be detected. With ATP as substrate, a high (Ve/Vo of 1.2) and low MM form (Ve/Vo of 2.1) alkaline phosphatases were observed at 40 DAS however at 60 DAS stage only one peak with Ve/Vo of 1.7 was detected. Although, a low activity of acid phytase was observed in nodules at all stages of development but neither alkaline phytase nor phytic acid could be detected. It appears that the nodules acquire inorganic phosphate from the roots. The higher content of water soluble organic phosphorus in mature nodules could be due to the low activities of phosphatases at maturity.
Molecular diversity studies of 19 rhizobia isolates from chickpea were conducted using simple sequence repeats (SSR) and 16S rDNA-RFLP markers. Phenotypic characterization with special reference to salinity and pH tolerance was performed. These isolates were identified as different strains of Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Agrobacterium. Twenty SSR loci of Mesorhizobium ciceri, distributed across the other rhizobial genome, clearly differentiated 19 rhizobial isolates. Analogous clustering supported the results of 16S rDNA sequence-based phylogeny. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences from M. ciceri strains revealed that nucleotide variables (signature sites) were located at 20 different positions; most of them were present in the first 820 bp region from 5’ terminal. Interestingly, 14 signature sites were located in two main regions, the variable region V1 (nt 527–584), and variable region V2 (nt 754–813). The secondary structure and minimal free energy were determined in these two regions. These results will be useful in characterizing the micro-evolutionary mechanisms of species formation and increase understanding of the symbiotic relationship.
In order to evaluate morphological and physiological traits related to drought tolerance and to determine the best criteria for screening and identification of drought-tolerant genotypes, we grew two tolerant genotypes (MCC392, MCC877) and two sensitive genotypes (MCC68, MCC448) of chickpea under drought stress (25% field capacity) and control (100% field capacity) conditions and assessed the effect of drought stress on growth, water relations, photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content in the seedling, early flowering and podding stages. Drought stress significantly decreased shoot dry weight, CO2 assimilation rate (A), transpiration rate (E), and PSII photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) in all genotypes. In the seedling and podding stages, PSII photochemical efficiency was higher in tolerant genotypes than in sensitive genotypes under drought stress. Water use efficiency (WUE) and CO2 assimilation rate were also higher in tolerant than in sensitive genotypes in all investigated stages under drought stress. Our results indicated that water use efficiency, A and Fv/Fm can be useful markers in studies of tolerance to drought stress and in screening adapted cultivars of chickpea under drought stress.
The effect of gamma irradiation and EMS treatment on seed germination and seedling height of Chick pea (Cicer arietinum. L.). In this regard Co-4 variety of chick pea was subjected to different doses/concentrations of gamma rays (20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 kR) and EMS (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mM) for inducing mutation. The effect of mutagen was observed on the basis of percentage of seed germination, seedling height reduction at 15th day and survivability. From the result it was observed that, the percentage of seed germination, seedling height reduction at 15th day and survivability were significantly decreased with increasing doses/concentrations of mutagen. The effective doses/ concentrations which caused 50 % growth reduction were 40kR in gamma rays and 30 mM in EMS.
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important legume crop and widely cultivated in northwestern provinces of Iran. During a survey in the 2015 growing season a total of 170 selected chickpea plants with general yellowing symptoms including stunting and leaf bronzing were collected. Serological Elisa and tissue blot immunoassay (TIBA) tests revealed the presence of Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV) and Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV) as the predominant viruses in the region. Some serologically positive samples of BLRV and CpCSV were selected and rechecked by RT-PCR. Th e results of amplifi ed PCR products using a specifi c pair of primers towards the Cp gene region of the viruses were approximately 413 bp for CpCSV and 391 bp for BLRV. Results obtained from sequence comparison of BLRV (IR-F-Lor-5) isolate form two subgroups with eight other BLRV isolates from GeneBank indicating a high homology of 96% with isolates from Argentina, Germany, Tunisia, USA, Spain, and Colombia. An isolate from Norabad (Iran) (IR-Nor) had 98% homology with HQ840727 Libyan isolate. CpCSV sequence comparison with six other GeneBank isolates indicated 98% homology with isolates from Tunisia and Azerbaijan. Th e overall results of this research revealed the CpCSV and BLRV (luteoviruses) associated with the yellowing disease syndrome of chickpea crops in the surveyed region.
Pulses are an important dietary constituent in human and animal diets. As well as being a source of income and livestock feed, pulses satisfy 33% of the dietary protein nitrogen (N) needs of humans. Pulses are often exposed to environmental stresses (biotic and abiotic) that decrease their productivity throughout the world. Abiotic stresses (drought, salt, temperature, UV, nutrient deficiency) alone are responsible for more than 50% yield reductions of some major crops. The following examination of drought stress types (no irrigation, early period stress, late period stress, control) of 10 chickpea genotypes from Turkey was carried out for two years (2010 and 2011) in a field experiment set up accoding to a randomized complete block design with three replications and conducted under the ecological conditions prevalent in Konya, Turkey. The investigated nutrition-related parameters were the seed concentrations of protein, fat, ash, fiber, moisture, non-nitrogenous pith substances and minerals. Means achieved under the particular stress types showed that the protein percentage ranged from 19.71% to 19.80%, fat – 4.640 to 4.690%, ash – 2.810 to 2.860%, fiber – 7.360 to 7.400%, moisture – 9.150 to 9.180%, non-nitrogenous pith substances – 56.16 to 56.25%, while the mineral content (mg kg-1) corresponded to the following ranges: 9.700 to 9.980 B, 68.32 to 79.44 for Fe, 8866.3 to 8912.4 for K, 1383.1 to 1410.3 for Mg, 21.99 to 23.85 Mn, 3148.0 to 3192.6 P, 1815.6 to 1835.4 for S and from 25.81 to 28.43 for Zn. In general, the content of protein, magnesium and sulfur showed the lowest values under no irrigation conditions, while the content of ash, non-nitrogenous pith substances, boron, potassium, phosphorus and zinc showed the highest values under no irrigation conditions. Additionally, the nutritional value of chickpea seeds showed significant differences for all of the investigated characteristics viewed in terms of triple interactions (year x stress factor x genotype). The present research results can be useful for farmers, plant breeders, food companies etc., interested in chickpea. Finally, responses of the genotypes to different levels of drought stress were modified by the investigated quality characteristics.
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