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The purpose of the study was to recognise relationships between participation in leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and smoking and alcohol consumption among former athletes (FA) and individuals with no sports experience (NA). In Spring-Summer periods in the years 1997-2002 within the purposively sampled groups of FA (n=312) and people NA (n=417) - an anonymous survey was conducted concerning their socioeconomic status, participation in LTPA, smoking and alcohol consumption. The age of examined FA and NA ranged from 18 to 51 years. Respondents' participation in LTPA was measured as follows: frequency, time and forms of LTPA. For evaluation of respondents' smoking status in the last six months the following categories were used: I do not smoke, I smoked occasionally, I smoked 1 to 10 cigarettes/day, and I smoked more than 10 cigarettes/day. Variables describing alcohol consumption involve frequency of drinking alcohol beverages and type of consumed alcohol beverages. It has shown that among male FA was a significantly lower rate of non-smokers, as compared to male NA. No correlation was found between LTPA and smoking and alcohol consumption among women FA and NA. Negative correlation between participation in LTPA and smoking and alcohol consumption was found in both male groups. The results obtained allow us to draw a conclusion that promoting participation in competitive sports or LTPA is a valuable means to complement intervention programmes focused on the reduction and elimination of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption addressed to men.
The aim of the study was to compare the impact of socioeconomic factors and self-rated health on participation in leisure time physical activity (LTPA) among former athletes and male non athletes. In the spring-summer of 1997 - 2002, two groups of males between the ages of 18 - 51 years were enrolled in the study: former athletes (n=175) and men without any (past or present) competitive sports experience (n=197). Sample selection was deliberate according to the "easy access" criterion. An anonymous, postal self-return survey included questions concerning the variables of frequency, time spent on LTPA and form of participation in LTPA, socioeconomic variables (age, marital status, residence, educational level, occupation, income level) and selfrated health (categories: very good, good, moderate, poor and very poor). Statistical analysis of the study included test of differences between two structural components and X2 test. In both groups, poor participation in LTPA was significantly associated with a negative self-rated health and low socioeconomic status (blue-collar work or unemployment, low income, low educational level), and in the group of men without any competitive sports experience, also with the age range of 35 - 51 years, and residence in a rural area. Furthermore, the impact of poor socioeconomic status on participation of men in LTPA was found to be weaker among former athletes than in men without any past competitive sports experience. The results of the study indicate that the following are necessary to improve participation of men in LTPA: propagation of competitive sports among boys and young men, and elimination of socioeconomic barriers for their physical activity.
Aim: Economic development, connected with the concept of a society engaged in lifelong learning, demands that education produce optimal professional competences. The aim of this study was to determine the motives for the choice of physical education studies, and ascertain expectations concerning professional competences, as well as self-evaluation of competences acquired, in current and former athletes and non-athletes. Methods. 226 people were examined, all studying physical education at the Faculty of Physical Culture in Gorzow Wielkopolski, a branch of the University School of Physical Education in Poznan. Purposive sampling was used (Radzińska, Nowak, L., Nowak, M., 2013). The study included current (22.6%) and former athletes (31.8%) as well as non-athletes (45.6%). A diagnostic survey was employed, with the use of the techniques of auditorium questionnaire, interview and document analysis. In order to draw statistical conclusions, the trait frequency and the independence χ2 test were used. Results. Former athletes more often reported having been motivated to choose the studies by their interest in employment with institutions of physical culture while non-athletes by their wish to obtain jobs in schools (p ≤ 0.05). Expectations of competence in physical education methodology were indicated by all respondents, slightly more often by former athletes and non-athletes (p ≤ 0.05). For current athletes, competence in physical fitness was important. Psycho-pedagogical competence in motivating schoolchildren to work was expected by most students (84.5%), slightly more often by former athletes and non-athletes (p ≤ 0.05). Respondents rated their preparation for employment with regard to foreign languages and preparation for scientific work as average and fair, and their selfeducation ability and computer skills as good.
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