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Content available remote PROCESSES OF CONCENTRATION IN SUGAR INDUSTRY
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The paper presents the progress and the consequences of concentration processes in sugar industry. The studies encompassed both market and production concentration processes. The current structure of entities in the sugar market is the effect of statutory regulations and several years of ownership-capital transformations that lead to development of five owner groups. Within those groups concentration of production occurred as a consequence of which a significant improvement of production-technological results of sugar industry and its raw materials base took place. The situation in the sugar market is determined to a high extent by its specifics and the market conditions that encompass statutory regulations, demand factors and the global market situation. The currently taking place sugar market reform is to result in a decrease in prices and production volumes, which requires termination of production in consecutive sugar refineries and taking up other types of production by such plants. This forces further restructuring and concentration processes. Only the most productive and modern refineries will be able to continue production.
EN
The article presents the spatial distribution of foreigners living in Poland. The data used come from the Office for Repatriations and Aliens and refer to all foreigners who were legally residing in Poland as on 1th September 2004 (84,7 thousand persons). The main countries of origin of immigrants are states of the former Soviet Union (mostly Ukraine, Russia and Belarus), next countries of the Western Europe (Germany, France, the United Kingdom) and finally countries of the East-Central Europe (Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro). Depending on a region of origin, foreigners form different spatial patterns of settlement and show different levels of concentration, evaluated by use of the Gini index and the Lorenz curve. Foreigners coming from the countries of the former Soviet Union settled in all regions of Poland and did not form spatial clusters. The degree of the spatial concentration is moderate for the citizens of East-European states and profoundly high for the immigrants from Far East states (above all the Vietnamese). The latter constitute ethnic enclaves in the biggest Polish cities.
EN
The paper presents the impact of the increasing applications of IT business systems and the concentration and internationalisation of retail trade on the transformation of distribution systems from the perspective of their territorial, industry-related and institutional dimensions. The transformation consists in introducing new channels, modernising the scope and functioning of the traditional channels, changing the performed functions as well as the relations between channel participants and improving the flow of products between particular distribution links. However, the ultimate level of effectiveness is determined by the choices made by end users, and changes to their preferences and buying behaviour may lead to the need to create new distribution channels.
EN
The author analyses the treatise Praktikos of Evagrios Pontikos from the point of view of the history of psychology. The treatise is dated back to the 4th century. In Praktikos we can find a categorization of undesirable thoughts and elements of experimental approach in order to control mental processes. The context of the origin of the categorization shows that Evagrios systemized previous classifications of the objectionable thoughts that had existed in the early monastic community before he had joined it.
EN
The insurance market belongs to the dynamically developing branches of the national economy even in the period of the debt crises. Vast damages, which arise as a consequence of natural catastrophes, object risks or as a result of subject risks are stimuli for the growing interest of all economic subjects operating not only in insurance market but also in the national economy. The insurance industry performs its basic functions – accumulation, redistribution, stimulation and control functions – in complex economic conditions. The significance of the control function increases in direct proportion to a complicated economic-social situation since the level of insurance fraud also occurs in that period. This paper addresses the development of the insurance market in the Slovak Republic, Poland and Ukraine. We focused our attention on selected important indicators, namely: concentration index, written premium, penetration, insurance density, technical reserves and investment activity of commercial insurance companies.
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