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1
Content available remote Play as narrative demonstration of children’s cognitive development
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EN
In this paper we analyze play as a narrative demonstration of children’s cognitive development. The researcher observed fifteen three- and four-year-old children, looking at their development of cognitive concepts such as sources of fuel, construction of a house, and practical use of various geometric figures.
EN
Disability has become an increasingly important field of investment for modern welfare policy-visible in architecture for wheelchair users as well as in budgets for health care. This documents a gain in solidarity, but it implies also some challenges of practical and philosophical character. Play and games (of, for, and with disabled people) make these challenges bodily. These challenges will here be explored in three steps. In the first step, we discover the paradoxes of equality and categorization, normalization and deviance in the understanding of disability. Ableism, a negative view on disability, is just around the corner. The Paralympic sports for disabled people make this visible. However, play with disabled people shows alternative ways. And it calls to our attention how little we know, so far, about how disabled people play. The second step leads to an existential phenomenology of disablement. Sport and play make visible to what degree the building of “handicap” is a cultural achievement. All human beings are born disabled and finally die disabled-and inbetween they create hindrances to make life dis-eased. Dis-ease is a human condition. However, and this is an important third step, disablement and dis-eased life are not just one, but highly differentiated. These differences are relevant for political practice and have to be recognized. Attention to differences opens up a differential phenomenology of disablement and of disabled people in play-as a basis for politics of recognition.
EN
In the 19th and 20th centuries the idea of collective games in the open was very popular. The idea of developing physical activity of children was also accepted in the Kingdom of Poland. Drawing inspiration from Germany, Sweden, Belgium and France and inspired by Henryk Jordan Gardens in Krakow, representatives of the Warsaw Hygiene Society decided to set up similar gardens in Warsaw. After the enthusiastic opening of the garden in 1899, they quickly had to interrupt the fun to includ this type of activity in the Society. At that time, being unable to formally conduct collective games, members of the organizing committee were delegated abroad to seek inspiration and organizational and methodical solutions. W.E. Raue Children’s gardens re-started their activity in 1901, after obtaining the consent of the Ministry of the Interior.
EN
This article discusses studies of some works by Petr P. Potemkin, a poet and playwright of the Silver Age. His plays for revue theatres and cabarets have not been studied yet, and the author of the article suggests her understanding of this part of Potemkin’s artistic legacy. The article studies specific features of the one-act drama of the early 20th century.
5
Content available Zabawa w mieście: przypadek shoefiti
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The paper is a voice in the current of research on ludic behaviour realized within the social and cultural space of the contemporary city. The object of study is a phenomenon known on the Internet as shoefiti. The article approaches the practice of throwing shoes tied together with shoe strings onto electric or telephone cables as a category of ludic behaviour. I present the results of existing studies and indicate further research possibilities.
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Content available remote "You Think You Are Too Old to Play?" Playing Games and Aging
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EN
Health deteriorates with age due to hormonal changes and reduced physical, mental and social activity. In turn, this deterioration can lead to a wide range of problems including a fear of undertaking any forms of physical movements. Reports from exercise-based studies indicate there might be considerable improvement with appropriately programmed exercise workloads. However, the lasting effect of such programmes seem to be doubtful as a lot of the elderly drop out along the way, sensing it to be too "organized" and too stressful. Therefore, we claim that some traditional games, as a form of physical activity, can serve its role in engaging elderly adults. They do not require high level of specialization and technical perfection and may also be useful as a form of physiotherapy, particularly with elderly individuals who suffer age- and health-related problems.Play as a form of physical, playful activity is essential for healthy development of any individual as it seems to facilitate the linkages of language, emotion, movement, socialization and cognition. As a movement activity, it is a rather free-spirit activity that makes a positive difference in brain development and human functioning. Although rooted in biological aspects of life, play needs to be associated with cultural aspects of human development. Especially with the elderly population, this social and also cognitive stimulation is sometimes more important than physical. So in our paper we ask: what potentially positive effects can a traditional play/game have on the elderly people?Since there has been no research on the health-related effectiveness of such games, in this article we will highlight this problem from a number of different angles as a proposal for various community-based exercise programmes. This will allow us to design and adapt those games, specially to the health needs and social interests of this particular section of the population. It is also meant to serve as a proposal for potential future research.
EN
Disability has become an increasingly important field of investment for modern welfare policy-visible in architecture for wheelchair users as well as in budgets for health care. This documents a gain in solidarity, but it implies also some challenges of practical and philosophical character. Play and games (of, for, and with disabled people) make these challenges bodily. These challenges will here be explored in three steps. In the first step, we discover the paradoxes of equality and categorization, normalization and deviance in the understanding of disability. Ableism, a negative view on disability, is just around the corner. The Paralympic sports for disabled people make this visible. However, play with disabled people shows alternative ways. And it calls to our attention how little we know, so far, about how disabled people play. The second step leads to an existential phenomenology of disablement. Sport and play make visible to what degree the building of “handicap” is a cultural achievement. All human beings are born disabled and finally die disabled-and inbetween they create hindrances to make life dis-eased. Dis-ease is a human condition. However, and this is an important third step, disablement and dis-eased life are not just one, but highly differentiated. These differences are relevant for political practice and have to be recognized. Attention to differences opens up a differential phenomenology of disablement and of disabled people in play-as a basis for politics of recognition.
PL
W prezentowanym artykule autorki skupiły się na zadaniach nauczyciela jako organizatora aktywności zabawowej i zadaniowej uczniów klas I–III. Przyjęły założenie, że zabawa jest bardzo istotnym, naturalnym elementem życia dziecka wynikającym z jego wewnętrznych potrzeb, ma ogromie znaczenie dla rozwoju wszystkich sfer osobowości dziecka. Zabawa skupia w sobie wszystkie tendencje rozwojowe dziecka. Jest ona dla dziecka źródłem rozwoju i stanowi najbliższą mu sferę rozwoju. W pracy szkoły ważne są zadania rozwojowo-dydaktyczne projektowane przez nauczyciela. W edukacji elementarnej rolą nauczyciela jest dobór odpowiednich zadań do indywidualnych potrzeb i możliwości uczniów. Zadania stawiane wychowankom powinny być na tyle trudne, aby uaktywniły cały ich potencjał rozwojowy i zmotywowały do aktywności. Tematyka badań zaprezentowana w artykule wymagała uczestniczenia w sytuacjach edukacyjnych zorganizowanych w projekcie edukacyjnym realizowanym w Instytucie Pedago-giki UMCS: „ZA PROGIEM” – wyprawy odkrywców. Metodę stanowił eksperyment nauczający, czyli autorski projekt edukacyjny badający możliwości uczniów klas I–III w wybranych obszarach. Projekt był realizowany od listopada 2018 do czerwca 2019 roku. Organizacja eksperymentu wymagała stworzenia przestrzeni edukacyjnej, w której uczniowie podejmowali aktywność zabawową i realizowali zadania rozwojowe. Sytuacje edukacyjne były obserwowane i analizowane. Obserwacja pozwoliła określić rolę nauczyciela w tworzeniu warunków rozwojowych, zaobserwować formy aktywności uczniów oraz relacje między nimi. W badaniach wykorzystano obserwację uczestniczącą. Badaniom poddano aktywność uczniów, którzy podczas wykonywania zadań pracowali indywidualnie i zespołowo. Dodatkowo w badaniach wykorzystano analizę wytworów uczniowskich w zadaniu „Projektant” i zadaniu o charakterze konstrukcyjnym. Z perspektywy badacza szukano odpowiedzi na cztery pytania: Jakie zadania stoją przed nauczycielem kreującym dziecięcą aktywność podczas zabawy i zadań rozwojowych? Jakie relacje rówieśnicze zachodzą podczas zaaranżowanych zabaw i zadań? W jaki sposób dzieci radzą sobie z zadaniem, które polega na projektowaniu? Jaka jest różnica w konstrukcjach stworzonych przez uczniów indywidualnie i podczas działań zespołowych? Wyniki badań pozwoliły na określenie zadań nauczyciela projektującego aktywność zabawową i zadaniową uczniów i sformułowanie wniosków metodycznych przydatnych w pracy nauczycieli edukacji elementarnej.
EN
The article focuses on the teacher’s role as the organizer of play and task activities in grades 1–3. The authors have assumed that play is a relevant and natural part of children’s life that results from their inner needs and has great meaning for the development of all aspects of children’s personalities. Play focuses within itself all developmental tendencies of children. It is a source of development for children and establishes the zone of proximal development. On the other hand, the development and didactic tasks designed by the teacher are important in the activity of a school. In elementary education, the role of the teacher is to choose adequate tasks for the individual needs and possibilities of students. The tasks presented to the students should be difficult enough to activate their whole developmental potential and motivate them to be active. The scope of topics presented in this article required the participation in educational situations organized within the educational project realized in the Institute of Pedagogy of the Maria Curie Sklodowska University “Beyond the Threshold.” Explorers’ Expeditions. The method incorporated was the teaching experiment, that is, an original educational project that looks into the capabilities of pupils in classes 1–3 in selected areas. The project was carried out from November 2018 to June 2019. Organization of the teaching experiment required the creation of circumstances in which the pupils observed undertook task and play activities. The situations were observed and analyzed. The observation enabled the authors to define, among others, the role of the teacher in the process of creation of the development circumstances, to observe the forms of activity of the pupils in play and tasks and the relations among them. The model of research incorporated active observation. The pupils’ individual activity and group work were under observation. Moreover, the research included analysis of the pupils’ creations. The researchers looked for the answers to the following questions: What tasks should be performed by the teacher who is leading the children’s activities during play and devel-opmental tasks? What peer relations can be observed during arranged play and tasks? How do the pupils deal with the tasks aimed at designing? What is the difference in constructions made by children individually and during group work? The results of the research enabled the authors to define the role of the teacher who designs the activity during play and tasks as well as to formulate methodological conclusions that are useful for the elementary education teachers.
EN
The aim of this article is to discuss the functional violations of the spelling rules in online memes. The author presents examples of language styles characteristic of individual templates which breach the spelling rules. She demonstrates a relationship between the changes in spelling and the depreciating intention typical of memes as well as the repeated personal stereotypes. In addition, she shows the role of the spelling modifications in creating word games and new meanings. The analysed examples prove the dominance of functional deviations over genuine spelling mistakes. Non compliance with the rules can be regarded as a specific form of appreciation of language correctness. Incorrectness is the most prominent means to depreciate politicians, celebrities and representatives of various social groups, at the same time reflecting concern about the culture of the language.
PL
Celem artykułu jest omówienie funkcjonalnych naruszeń zasad pisowni w memach internetowych. Autorka przedstawia przykłady stylizacji językowej charakterystycznej dla poszczególnych szablonów, której elementem jest naruszenie normy ortograficznej. Dowodzi związku zmian pisowni z charakterystyczną dla memów intencją deprecjonującą, a także z odtwarzaniem stereotypów osobowych. Ponadto pokazuje rolę modyfikacji pisowni w tworzeniu gier językowych i nowych znaczeń. Zanalizowane przykłady świadczą o dominacji funkcjonalnych odstępstw od normy nad rzeczywistymi błędami ortograficznymi. Brak zgodności z zasadami może być uznany za specyficzną formę aprecjacji poprawności językowej. Niepoprawność bowiem jest najbardziej wyrazistym środkiem służącym deprecjonowaniu polityków, celebrytów oraz przedstawicieli różnych grup społecznych, a jednocześnie wyrazem troski o kulturę języka.
11
Content available remote Dětská skupina jako kolektivita
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The aim of this study is to examine the everyday life of day-care institutions and the culture of peer relationships that develop there. Interdisciplinary studies of childhood perceive it as a social construct separable from biological immaturity, and they describe a distinct toddler style of socialisation with peers. In this paradigm, participation in cultural routines is central to understanding child socialisation. Based on ethnographic observations in two facilities and interviews with teachers and parents, we explore relationships between peers, social routines, and the creation of collectivity. We focus on the perspective of adults and their perception of the children's collective and on the meanings of children's interactions. The analyses reveal that as well as socialising in hierarchical relationships with adults they also actively participate in cultural reproduction through the interpretation of meanings. What constitutes 'play' when socialising with adults becomes 'something real' when it occurs between physical and cognitive equals. Interaction with peers in a day-care facility allows a child to experience a collective 'WE', through which they are then able to to control adults. However, the creation of collectivity depends on their being conditions in place that are suitable for small children and toddlers.
12
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In this article I try to recognise a possible role of play in contemporary cultural anthropological research. Although the relationships between this fi eld of study and play are by no means new, what is most usually taken into account, is the formative function of play in culture, and this is often analysed only in relation to adults. Here, however, I focus on a different possible perspective: on including a playful element into the very research process. Nowadays, this becomes an important factor, pertaining to the attempts of cultural anthropologists to include children as subjects into the main course of study, as well as to recognise their role as social actors, who also build the society. Theoretical thoughts on research methodology were illustrated with a short example taken from my own and my research team’s study with children belonging to families with a history of infertility.
EN
Despite many years of debate in psychology and education on the significant role of play in cognitive and socio-emotional development of children, educational policy and practice do not always positively react to their formulated postulates, and the role of play has been permanently marginalised. The text, based on literature review and several research findings, raises many important issues concerning the role of play in the development of the social understanding and self-regulation in young children.
14
Content available Gertrude Stein plays video games
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The article juxtaposes the problems of spatiality and repetition in video game narrative with Gertrude Stein’s notion of the landscape play, in which the linear plot dissolves in favour of a complex network of connections between different elements of the work. Several examples are discussed, from The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild to the Dark Souls series, showing the possible links between video games and Stein’s writing techniques, especially in the field of open world games, where the large, easily accessible spaces make it more difficult to build coherent, organised plots.
PL
Despite many years of debate in psychology and education on the significant role of play in cognitive and socio-emotional development of children, educational policy and practice do not always positively react to their formulated postulates, and the role of play has been permanently marginalised. The text, based on literature review and several research findings, raises many important issues concerning the role of play in the development of the social understanding and self-regulation in young children.
EN
Complex phenomena such as play, creativity or innovation are familiar, yet difficult to describe in a systematic manner. In this short article I propose six necessary conditions for any comprehensive description of play. Against this background I discuss my systems-theoretic, constructivist and practice-informed approach to play.
17
Content available Gertrude Stein gra na komputerze
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EN
The article juxtaposes the problems of spatiality and repetition in video game narrative with Gertrude Stein’s notion of the landscape play, in which the linear plot dissolves in favour of a complex network of connections between different elements of the work. Several examples are discussed, from The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild to the Dark Souls series, showing the possible links between video games and Stein’s writing techniques, especially in the field of open world games, where the large, easily accessible spaces make it more difficult to build coherent, organised plots.
18
Content available Gamification or the Ludic Expectations of Literacy
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EN
This article attempts to show how play, namely gamification, can fit the determined goal of achieving outstanding literacy instruction for Primary Education children. We first provide a brief overview of the recent history on the research of literacy and play. We also make reference to strong standards and gamification in Primary Education childhood classes. To do so, and after reviewing current research into the issue of gamification and literacy in education, we describe a practical experience in a state Primary Education school in Valencia (Spain) connecting gamification and literacy skills. By doing this we will try to fill a gap found after our search of the literature, which revealed that to date there are few studies that have investigated practical experiences of teachers using games. The main objective of the didactic proposal depicted here was to enhance the children’s literacy skills through gamification in the field of Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL). Thus, the implementation of this experience has studied the way of integrating game dynamics in non-recreational environments to enhance their learning. The design of the teaching sequence shown here was contextualized by using the picture book The Gruffalo, and the students as the main protagonist to finally achieve a close relationship between learning, literacy and entertainment.
EN
The article analyses photographic discourse in contemporary Russian dramatic texts as a specific way of perceiving and constructing the reality, as a means of communication, and as a metalanguage. The conceptualization of photographic images in the dramatic text enabled the scrutiny of specific artistic ploys and photographic techniques applied. The article reveals the nature of correlation between the visual perception of a photograph incorporated in the dramatic text, the characters’ utterances and the author’s remarks. The photographic image fosters the rejection or the “appropriation” (recognition in oneself) of the Other by the characters. It also allows for the implementation of the communicative mechanisms used to create the hyperreality of the photo universum. The performative potential of the photographic discourse of the dramatic text materializes itself in such a hyperreality.
EN
The article is devoted to Krystyna Miłobędzka’s texts for children’s theatre. Demonstrating the kinship between the characteristic ways of thinking of poet and child, the author analyses how space is created – the space for both child’s play and poetic ritual. Highlighted in the work is the idea of how things are done through the use of clich´es, child’s words and rhymes in poetic language. The main character of Miłobędzka’s scripts is language – its potential and power for creation.
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