The authors report on two multiple myeloma sibling pairs. In the absence of a known disease-specific marker one can only speculate on an explanation: is it because of inherited errors or is it related to the same environmental exposure, or both? In this study HLA typing and metabolizing enzyme polymorphism studies have been carried out with the aim of finding inherited similarities in the siblings or characteristics that might differ from the average population. Sibling pair 1 shared an HLA haplotype. Sibling pair 2 shared only HLA-B51, DR4, DRw53, DQ3. Sibling 1/1 was GSTT1 / GSTM1 null and GSTP1 Ile105Val; sibling 1/2 was a GSTT1 / GSTM1 heterozygote and GSTP1 Ile105Val; sibling 2/1 and 2/2 were GSTT1 heterozygotes and shared GSTM1 null / GSTP1 Ile105Ile. The siblings had identical light chain or heavy chain secretion, or both. The similarities found in the inherited factors together with the same environmental exposure in the siblings’ first 20 years of life imply that the development of the same disease cannot be a coincidence.