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Purpose. The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate beach volleyball defensive strategies in terms of how often various tactics were employed, their effectiveness, reliability, and overall efficiency based on a sample of elite female volleyball players. Methods. A sample of 746 defensive actions performed by various teams that competed in the 2008 Summer Olympic Games (Beijing, China), the 2009 World Championships (Stavanger, Norway), and the 2009 and 2010 Swatch FIVB Beach Volleyball World Tour (Stare Jabłonki, Poland; Seoul, South Korea) were analyzed in terms of what defensive systems were employed and their outcomes. Results. Fourteen different defensive systems were used by the teams during defensive play. Out of the fourteen systems, four accounted for almost 75% of all defensive action. The most commonly used defense strategies were selected for more detailed analysis in terms of their activity, effectiveness, and reliability. Conclusions. One defensive system in particular was found to be the most prominent in terms of being the most commonly used as well as efficient among all of the observed systems; high-level teams should place additional focus on mastering this system. Nevertheless, effective team strategy should also include less commonly used systems as a way to take an opponent by surprise by the use of non-standard strategy.
The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of sports training on the physiological response to supra-maximal exercise during consecutive phases of the annual training cycle. The study was carried out in volleyball players at the onset of each training phase. VO2 max was determined by an indirect method using the Ästand-Rhyming nomogram and biochemical analyses were performed before and after the Wingate test. Concentrations of lactate in capillary blood were measured and levels of glucose, insulin, visfatin, resistin, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of serum and the total antioxidative status of plasma were determined using venous blood.Most significant differences with respect to physiological and biochemical variables centered around the pre-competitive phase when compared to other phases of the annual training cycle. Blood visfatin concentration in highly trained volleyball players is reduced by supra-maximal exercise, whereas levels of resistin remain relatively constant at rest. With the exception of the competitive phase, values of the insulin resistance index fit within the reference range. Levels of lipid peroxidation products were inversely correlated with the insulin resistance index and resistin concentrations.The physical training during the annual cycle does not affect resistin levels, but influences insulin, glucose and visfatin concentrations, along with markers of pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance in beach volleyball players.
After the 2000 Olympic Games, the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) modified the scoring system used in beach volleyball from side-out to a rally point system. The goal was to facilitate the comprehension of the game and to stabilize match duration. The purpose of this study was to assess the duration and number of rallies in men´s and women´s beach volleyball matches (2000-2010 FIVB World Tour). Data from 14,432 men´s matches and 14,175 women´s matches of the 2000-2010 World Tour were collected. The variables studied were: match duration, total rallies per set and match, number of sets, team that won the set and match, type of match (equality in score), and gender. The average match duration in beach volleyball is stable, ranging from 30 to 64 minutes, regardless of the number of sets, the stage of the tournament (qualifying round or main draw), or gender. The average number of rallies per match were 78-80 for two-set matches and 94-96 for three-set matches. Matches from the main draw are more balanced than matches from the qualifying round. More balanced matches (smaller point difference between teams) have longer durations. It is not clear why there is no relationship between the number of rallies and match duration. Future studies are needed to clarify this aspect. The results can serve as a reference to guide beach volleyball training (with regard to duration and number of rallies) and to help understand the effect of the rule change.
Background. The article concerns high level beach volleyball players’ actions and in particular the issues of evaluation. The main object of the analysis is the setting which seems to be an action that can increase the efficiency of the attack. It was assumed that setting skills are very important part of synergistic potential of players. Material and methods. In process of evaluation an original method of observation and a modern approach based on the evaluation criteria of players’ skills proposed by Panfil was used. The study was based on three criteria: correctness, diversity and flexibility. Research materials were the recordings of 12 men’s beach volleyball matches played during the top international tournaments of the 2011 and 2012 FIVB Beach Volleyball SWATCH World Tour. Results. We recorded the number of actions, average level of correctness, diversity and flexibility for each of the selected 20 players. Flexibility was determined by two indexes: dependent flexibility and independent flexibility. Conclusions. It is essential to provide important aspects of the game characteristics and prepare hints for the training process designed for top beach volleyball teams, based on the solutions used by the best teams in the world. Additionally, the paper discussed and verified new tools that expand the general criteria of players’ skills evaluation proposed by Panfil specifically to beach volleyball.
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