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This article attempts to the present the most important results of an analysis of Polish and Russian exponents of adnumerative approximation (e.g. Pol. 'okolo', 'przeszlo'; Rus. 'primerno', 'bolee', etc.). Approximation is defined here as a mechanism of numeric attribution, based on designating a segment in a series of numbers, instead of designating one particular point. This definition encompasses several different ways to designate a segment. All of those ways have separate exponents in Polish and Russian. Analysis indicates that exponents of the same sense can differ in terms of connectivity, semantics and stylistics. These differences should be taken into consideration while establishing Polish and Russian translational equivalents.
In this paper, we study the dramatic changes in the structure and behaviour of the Slovak economy in a period of the accession to the Euro area and the Great Recession and subsequent return to the long-run growth equilibrium. This small and very open economy is represented by nonlinear dynamic stochastic model of a general equilibrium with financial accelerator. The development of time-varying structural parameters is identified using the second order approximation of a nonlinear DSGE model. The model is estimated with the use of nonlinear particle filter. Analogous model was estimated for the economy of the Euro area. It is our goal to identify the most important changes in behaviour and underlying structure of the Slovak economy. In order to distinguish the country specific changes from broader Europe-wide trends we also compare the time-varying estimates of the Slovak economy and the Euro area.
We want to study two elements involved in the acquisition of Polish as a first language. The first element is lexical hierarchy of verbs. We observe that, when acquir- ing the verbal lexicon of a first language, learners use a large number of generic verbs such as kroić “to cut” or (roz)zbić, (z)łamać et (po)psuć “to break”. These verbs may be used in non conventional statements. The second element is non conventional statements based on verbs, such as Rozbiera drewno “She undresses the wood”. These statements are considered as errors, overextensions or metaphors. But we assert that these statements reflect a semantic flexibility which is essential to the acquisition of the (verbal) lexicon when learning a first language. We believe that verbal lexicon is organized through semantic proximity. This is in agreement with several other authors’ works. Our subjects are Polish adults and children. The children may be in the early or late stages of language acquisition. They were subjected to an experimental protocol which consisted in two tasks: action denomination and action reformulation. Our results include both semantic and statistical analysis. They reveal that all types of subjects produce a large number of generic verbs and non conventional statements.
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