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Content available remote Genesis of ER Stress in Huntington’s Disease
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EN
Recent research has identified ER stress as a major mechanism implicated in cytotoxicity in many neurodegenerative diseases, among them Huntington’s disease. This genetic disorder is of late-onset, progressive and fatal, affecting cognition and movement. There is presently no cure nor any effective therapy for the disease. This review focuses on recent findings that shed light on the mechanisms of the advent and development of ER stress in Huntington’s disease and on its implications, highlighting possible therapeutic avenues that are being or could be explored.
PL
Authors present an overview of hierarchical control of saccades, explaining why the saccadic refixation response is a cortically mediated activity. The time structure of saccadix refixation is discussed focusing on the long latency of response, which cannot be justified by physiological transmission delays. Cortical saccades procrastination is described based on the Professor Carpenter LATER Model. It is followed by the discussion of bioengineering aspects of saccadometry covering the selection of appropriate measurement technology and the expert system based eye movement signal analysis, aimed on extracting physiologically valid information about the brain functional status. Several examples are presented of the potential applicatio ns of saccadometry, including monitoring of severity and recovery from brain concussion, head exposure to high accelerations happening in contact sports, monitoring adaptation to high altitude and controlling mountain sickness, monitoring the neurodegenerative processes taking place in Huntington and Alzheimer diseases, as well as the possibility to optimize the placement of electrodes for deep brain stimulation. The concluding remark is: that the high sensitivity but low specificity of saccadic disturbances, usually considered as being disadvantageous for differential neurological diagnosis, should be seen as saccades main advantage, allowing to detect broad spectrum of brain dysfunctions at their earliest stage of development.
EN
The article is dedicated to an issue of Eurocentrism in American political scientist Samuel P. Huntington’s concept of the clash of civilisations. The arguments presented indicate that Huntington’s concept is pure Eurocentric. I start by mentioning a few of Huntington’s critics (Noam Chomsky, Samir Amin, Arjun Appadurai, and John M. Hobson). The next step includes analysing in detail the “Eurocentrism anatomy” and presenting Eurocentrism as a phenomenon based on two axes, which I call “materialistic” and “epistemological”. In other words, Eurocentrism is a kind of spectrum. Thanks to that, I compare Huntington’s concept with facts from literature embedded in both axes. Apart from other arguments, Eurocentric factors in the clash of civilisations are 1) civilisations in the past, 2) origin of the West, 3) demographic argument, and 4) the downfall of the West. I argue that the clash of civilisations is based on false, Eurocentric assumptions and prejudices.
EN
I argue that it is through an integrative dialogue based on the Ijing (Book of Chang-es) model of cooperative and cyclical change rather than a Marxist or neo-Marxist dia-lectical model of change based upon the Hegelian model of conflict and replacement that promises the greatest possibility of peaceful coexistence.1 As a case study of a dia-logue between civilizations, I utilize both a mythical and an historical encounter betwe-en Martin Buber, representing the West, and Zhuangzi, representing the East. I show that despite the vast temporal, historic, linguistic and cultural differences, that the dialo-gue between Zhuangzi and Buber is complementary and not adversarial.
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EN
The study presents various factors which obstacles adequate description and analysis of Chinese realities in Western scholarly literature. The first factor presented in the article is the psychological mechanism of a “mirror”. As Lynn T. White suggested, since the 17th century, that Westerners look at China not through a ‘window’ but through a ‘mirror’, in which their own fears or most treasured ideals are refl ected, not China itself. Hence their descriptions of China refl ect first of all their state of mind. Peter Hays Gries and Stanley Rosen add to this metaphor another one, that of a procrustean bed. According to these authors, contemporary Western scholars procede like ancient Procrustes who made his captives fit his bed cutting their too long limbs or stretching these too short, in order to adapt Chinese realities to the Western schemes. Sebastian Heilmann and Matthias Stepan in order to explain Western mistaken views of China and expectations presented six wrong assumptions concerning developments in China. Their list is controversial, but it is true that on the Western side there are numerous wrong assumptions concerning China and other Asian states. Thus the Chinese realities are described in a wrong way, and the predictions of future developments are also false. The Author put an emphasis on scientific categories and terms elaborated in Europe and the States and considered “universal”, which, however, are not adequate to the Chinese realities. Hence their use results in falsification of descriptions and makes previsions based on them – groundless. He distinguishes two essential kinds of categories and terms borrowed from the West but inadequate to the Chinese realities. The first constitutes the terms which significance does not fit to the Chinese realities, as “language”, “religion”, historical epochs such as “antiquity”, “,Middle Ages”, etc. The second constitutes the terms which meanings involve cultural values. Many of them are difficult to translate into Chinese and they acquire different meanings in the context of Confucian heritage. The Author analyses from this perspective: “human rights”, “democracy” and “freedom”. Western scholars are also often mislead by Chinese sources. The study indicates another factor, which facilitates great misunderstandings. According to the cultural norm of the Confucian civilisation there is a “proper façade” presented in public, behind which there are hidden “internal realities”. Of course, such differences could be detected in each culture, but in highly ritualistic Confucian civilisation this distinction is essential, and both parts constitute “complex realities”, whereas Westerners presume that the façade constitutes a whole and complete reality. The Author presents as an example centralised, unitary Leninist state in Chin that is – in his opinion merely a false “public image”, whereas in reality there operate more or less innumerable quite autonomous units, which in fact are not subordinate. Under such circumstances all decisions must be consulted and negotiated among them, like in a federal system, although it does not operate formally. The Westerners also misleads themselves considering their peculiar civilisation as “universal”, whereas there are various civilisations, which will not amalgamate during the modernisation processes. Hence various societies function and change in their own ways, different from the western schemes and expectations. The study indicates that the West still predominates and presents its civilisation as universal. However, its predomination faces growing resistance and numerous scholars recognise the existence of numerous civilisations, which will also develop in the future. The author enumerates the most significant concepts such as “dialogue among civilisations and cultures” adopted by the United Nations in 1989, Huntington’s warning against imposing western norms on other civilisations, which may result in their ‘clashes’, the concept of the Axial Age, of Multiple Modernities, and so on. The road to an equal status of all civilisations is long and tortuous. The elaboration of universal scientific categories and principles is even more difficult, and it is, perhaps, a task for future generations of Asian scholars.
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