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Content available remote Churchill And Poland
‘Poland must be reconstituted as a nation with access to the sea, and Germany must give up her Polish provinces’ – Winston Churchill.
Civilian and military emigres of the wartime period who had come to Hungary when the Polish-Hungarian border had been temporarily open (17-28 Sept. 1939) had a relatively rich artistic and cultural life. Thanks to the Hungarian authorities, the Polish emigres even formed their own institutions. As a result, some kind of press was started and approximately 60 newspapers and magazines were in circulation. What is more, 300 different books and brochures were duplicated in 13 publishing houses. In Budapest, the Polish Institute (Instytut Polski) and Polish Club (Swietlica Polska), among others, organized several dozen public cultural performances. Polish publications and books were controlled by the Press Department of the Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. This censorship function was held by Istvan Meszaros (1891-1964), who later became a famous translator of the Polish literature. After the Nazis entered Hungary in March 1944 he was substituted by Sandor Vajlok. Meszaros was always pro-Polish: he never questioned or refused any Polish publication, was secretly helping the Polish emigres. However, he was unable to oppose the intervention of the Embassy of the Third Reich in Budapest which temporarily stopped the publication of the leading emigre periodical 'Wiesci Polskie' ('Polish News') from the 12 May to the 3 June 1941. The reason of it was a quotation from Churchill's speech allegedly off ensive to the German nation. Among public performances which had serious problems with the official Hungarian authorities, two of them must be mentioned. The first was a guest performance by an emigre puppet theatre from Ipolyhidveg, presenting Polish Nativity Scene on 23 Feb. 1943 in the Polish Institute: the organizers and performers were denounced to the police authorities because the puppet of Herod resembled Hitler. The second was a performance of the youth group from the Polish secondary school in Balatonboglar, planned in Budapest on 16 May 1943, but cancelled at the last minute (as a result of the suggestion put forward by the Hungarian authorities who feared to irritate Nazis). Apart from the official Hungarian censorship, there was also an internal censorship of all religious publications held by the Polish Catholic Chaplaincy.
This article is an attempt of analysis of interpersonal relations established during the journey of Polish exiles to the Soviet Union. The analysis is based on twenty three narratives, published in periodicals entitled We, Sibiryaks, The Exile and in a book entitled Memoirs of Siberian Exiles. Mentioned narratives have been written many years after a return from the exile and are certainly incomplete, full of blanks and mistakes. It also has to be highlighted that all these memoirs come from different levels of memory. The narratives are built from autobiographical experiences as well as other people's tales and various sources associated with Polish exiles in Siberia such as literature, history and medial records. It is quite possible these memoirs were intentionally and consciously 'edited' to make narrative more interesting and attractive or to keep some information away from the reader (embarrassing or intimate issues). The author doesn't look at the collected materials through historical lenses, but from the point of view of Cultural Anthropologist. The analysis reveals that interpersonal relations during the transport to the USSR had various character. Such factors as: love, sympathy, solidarity, esteem, devotion and sense of mutual misfortune forced people to help and to support each other. On the other hand, bad living conditions in over-populated cattle carriages, the lack of personal, intimate space, constant and unwanted contact with others - made people feel traumatic and stressful.
Content available remote Obywatele polscy w obozie kontrwywiadu "Smiersz" w Charkowie w latach 1944-1945
According to J. Stalin’s politics in 1944-1945 organs of NKVD, NKGB and „Smersh” counter-intelligence arrested massively soldiers of anti-communist forms, above all soldiers of Home Army (Armia Krajowa) and workers of the Government Delegacy at Home (Delegatura Rzadu RP na Kraj). The vast majority of them was sent to NKVD USSR camps as the interned, but many leaders of the independence underground in Poland were imprisoned in the special camp in Kharkiv. In comparison with the ordinary camps in USSR, sanitary, health care and food supply conditions in Kharkiv were much more better. The prisoners could organize themselves musical, scientific and cultural classes. They weren’t been forced to work and also they weren’t preceded by questioning by special operational groups. On the other hand, they were kept in strict isolation from political news and Polish diplomatic organs. Probably J. Stalin wanted to use Poles (keeping in a good physical condition) in negotiations with the leaders of the United States and Great Britain. The situation changed in June 1945, when he managed the temporary government in Poland – the Provincional Government of National Unity (Tymczasowy Rzad Jednosci Narodowej), in fact composed of politicians from the Communist Party, which was accepted by eastern leaders. When he took control of Poland, the prisoners from Kharkiv were sent to „normal” camp in Ryazan in December 1945.
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