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EN
The article presents the problem of talented persons in the context of their own difficulties resulting from their understated self-esteem. The subject is presented as an examples of an adult and a child exposing the need of the early diagnosis of the child’s ability. A proper and early diagnosis is the basis of comprehensive development, building an adequate and high self-esteem and prevention of social exclusion.
EN
The relations of content of self-concept to self-esteem may reflect the role of different factors in developing self-esteem. On the basis of theories describing sources of self-esteem, we distinguished four domains of self-beliefs: agency, morality, strength and energy to act, and acceptance by others, which we hypothesized to be related to self-esteem. In two studies, involving 411 university students, the relationship between self-esteem and self-concept was examined. The results confirmed relative independence of these four domains. Self-evaluation of agency was the strongest predictor of selfesteem, followed by self-evaluation of strength and energy to act, and self-evaluation of acceptance by others. Selfevaluation regarding morality turned out to have either no or negative relationship with self-esteem. The results supported the theories assuming that either perception of one’s own agency or acceptance by others are sources of self-esteem.
EN
Maintaining beauty and youthfulness has always been and still is among the natural desires of women. A modern woman is a woman of success: independent, professionally successful, staying active for many years of her life. This activity as well as the influence of the media induce women to adapt to the existing patterns at all costs. Minimally invasive aesthetic medicine procedures help to repair beauty defects and reduce the ageing processes. They can have a positive influence on life and thinking by increasing well-being and atractiveness as well as helping to get rid of complexes. The aim of this paper is to assess the way in which the minimally invasive aesthetic medicine procedures affect the self-esteem of women and womens' perception of their own body. The study was conducted prospectively using a standardized questionnaire and diagnostic tools examining the perception of one's own body, self-esteem and emotional condition. The procedures performed most often were corrections with the use of hyaluronic acid and the most frequently declared motivation for the surgery was the need to increase sexual attractiveness that follows the first symptoms of aging processes. The undertaken analysis reveals that undergoing various forms of appearance correction has several psychical, physical and social effects. A significant majority of women that decided to undergo the treatments had high or average self-esteem initially, and its levels increased even further after the aesthetic surgery.
EN
In every day school life experiencing shame by students in situations of school assessment is a common phenomenon but not undertaken in research. Therefore, in this study it has been shown how assessment (external and teacher’s) and student’s self-esteem, including information about not meeting the standards and requirements existing in every day school life, imply experiences of shame in students towards themselves and towards others. Application of shame typology of Jacek M. Barbalet allowed not only to extract several types of shame experienced during assessment: narcissistic, situational, aggressive, and „submissive” but also to show the consequences of experiencing it by the assessed.
EN
Purpose: To evaluate the marital relationships, the thoughts about femininity and sexual identity, and the self-evaluation and changes in the self-esteem of women having a hysterectomy operation, during the period of both before and after surgery. Material and methods: This study was designed according to the principles of the comparative descriptive research carried out between 15 January 2013 – 15 June 2014 at Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. The power sample size was determined to be 72. The research included 88 contactable women who were admitted to the clinic at the time of the research, who had agreed to participate in the study, and who lived in the province where the research was conducted (as the final tests were done via home visits). A questionnaire form, the Coopersmith Self Esteem Scale, and the Social Comparison Scale were used in the collection of the data. Descriptive statistics and x2 and Paired t tests were used in the data analysis. Results: Changes in the self-esteem of women having a hysterectomy were examined before surgery, one week after surgery, and three months after surgery; while there weren’t any changes in self-esteem one week after surgery, a significant decrease in the women’s self-esteem was discovered three months after surgery (p<0.01). Conclusion: It was discovered that a change in self-evaluation and self-esteem occurs after hysterectomy surgery in women.
EN
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12-week aerobic exercises on self-esteem, social desirability and rate of mental health in male students of Payam Noor University (PNU). Basic procedures. For this reason we used male college students (n = 80, age = 22 ± 2. 1) who did not do any sport. They were randomly assigned to experimental (n = 40) and control (n = 40) groups, after having been selected via stratified random sampling among students of Ahvaz Payam Noor University. Also, to collect data there were implemented the Cooper test and the general health questionnaire of Goldberg (GHQ) and social desirability questionnaire of Crowne-Marlowe. Main findings. Statistical analysis showed that training like aerobic exercises is related to a significant improvement in mental health, self-esteem and social desirability because of favorable changes in some of physiological and psychological parameters. Conclusions. This study was of a semi-experimental type (pre-test, post-test). Data analyzed by Multivariate Analysis Of Variance (MANOVA) at p value (p = 0.05) revealed that there were significant differences between experimental group and control group, in mental health, self-esteem and social desirability.
EN
The article «Migrations as a factor activating family and social life of the elderly is meant to draw attention to the situation of older people especially their family and social life in a situation of migration immediate family. Contemporary migrations gainful employment also brings new challenges for older people - parents or grandparents. In the case of separation of families frequent their roles are intensified. Examples of research migrant families show older people how to effectively fulfill their role of caring, etc., And are «over active». In the case of migration of active seniors in Poland can be an example not only for the young. Often at the expense of their own health, passions, interests, helping children to migration. The measures taken for the elderly and their social activation of older people in a situation of migration in Poland should be a challenge not only for social policy but society as a whole faced by demographic and economic challenged.
EN
Introduction: Facebook is the most popular socialnetworking website in the world. It is estimated that it currently has more than 350 million users worldwide. Purpose; To assess the risk of addiction to Facebook the risk of addiction to Facebook among students of the Faculty of Health Sciences at the Medical University of Białystok in Poland. Materials and methods: This study included 440 student Facebook users. The original survey, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) as well as a Self-Assessment Test were used (FAT). Results: Twenty-seven percent of the sample have had Facebook accounts for one to two years. Fortyfive percent of the respondents had 91 to 300 Facebook friends. Ninety-four percent of the respondents reported that they do not think about Facebook when they are disconnected from it. A similar number of students reported that it is possible for people to become addicted to Facebook. Forty-seven percent of the respondents were convinced that they would be able to recognize a Facebook addict. The average number of points scored on the FAT test was 16.2 ± 21.1 points; the average on the self-assessment was 44.7 ± 20.1 points; the average on SWLS scale was 15.3 ±5.24 points. Five percent of students demonstrated features of Facebook addiction as well as low selfesteem and life satisfaction. Conclusions: Problematic use of Facebook affected a small percentage of respondents who had low self-esteem and self were dissatisfied with their lives.
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EN
Purpose of the study: Main purposes of conducted studies were to assess adolescents self-esteem and to recognise the selfesteem role in the expression of anger. Material and method: The study involved 221 people (including 95 girls and 126 boys) aged 15–18 years. There have been applied a Polish adaptation of Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) by Z. Juczyński and N. Ogińska-Bulik and Z. Juczyński Anger Expression Scale (SEG) and our own survey. Results: The analysis has revealed that adolescents, who had lower self-esteem in a scholastic me perspective, more often directed their anger inward, were able to control or repress it more efficiently. On the other hand, those with higher self-esteem in a scholastic me perspective and overall higher level of their self-esteem more often directed their anger outward, both in an indirect and a direct manner. Discussion: Although the higher self-esteem is usually associated with a socially acceptable behaviour, some study results indicate stronger tendency to take an aggressive behaviour among people with the higher self-esteem. Probably, this is due to the fact that people with the higher self-esteem, seeing themselves as being worth of acceptance and respect, partially “exempt” themselves from their self-control. A satisfaction of their own behaviour might limit the readiness for self-correction of their reactions. Conclusions: Adolescents with higher self-esteem are more disposed to manifest their anger, and those with lower more frequently suppress this kind of emotions and control them more thoroughly. Overall self-esteem and one of its aspects – the scholastic me seem to be particularly important. Conviction of your own value and belief in your school success reduce the barrier to express the anger, as if they protect you from losing social attractiveness.
PL
Cel pracy: Głównymi celami przeprowadzonych badań były ocena poczucia własnej wartości wśród młodzieży i poznanie roli poczucia własnej wartości w ekspresji gniewu. Materiał i metoda: Badaniami objęto 221 osób (95 dziewcząt i 126 chłopców) w wieku 15–18 lat. W badaniach wykorzystano Inwentarz Poczucia Własnej Wartości (CSEI) S. Coopersmitha w polskiej adaptacji Z. Juczyńskiego, Skalę Ekspresji Gniewu (SEG) autorstwa N. Ogińskiej-Bulik i Z. Juczyńskiego oraz ankietę własną. Wyniki: Analizy wykazały, że adolescenci, którzy mieli niższe poczucie własnej wartości w aspekcie ja szkolnego, częściej kierowali gniew do wewnątrz, bardziej efektywnie kontrolowali go i tłumili. Natomiast ci, którzy mieli wyższe poczucie własnej wartości w aspekcie ja szkolnego i ogólnie wyższy poziom poczucia własnej wartości, częściej kierowali gniew na zewnątrz – w sposób pośredni i bezpośredni. Omówienie: Choć wyższe poczucie własnej wartości wiąże się zazwyczaj z zachowaniem społecznie akceptowanym, niektóre doniesienia z badań wskazują na silniejszą tendencję do podejmowania zachowań agresywnych u osób z wyższą samooceną. Przypuszczalnie jest to spowodowane faktem, że ludzie z wyższym poczuciem własnej wartości, postrzegający siebie jako wartych akceptacji i szacunku, „zwalniają się” częściowo z samokontroli. Zadowolenie z własnych zachowań może ograniczać ich gotowość do autokorekty reakcji. Wnioski: Adolescenci z wyższym poczuciem własnej wartości są w większym stopniu skłonni do uzewnętrzniania gniewu, natomiast ci z niższym częściej tłumią emocje tego rodzaju i silniej je kontrolują. Szczególnie istotne dla regulacji emocjonalnej w adolescencji wydają się ogólne poczucie własnej wartości oraz jeden z jego aspektów – ja szkolne. Przekonanie o własnej wartości i sukcesie szkolnym zmniejsza barierę uzewnętrzniania gniewu, jakby chroniły one przed utratą atrakcyjności społecznej.
11
Content available remote Sexual Coercion Risk and Women’s Sport Participation
92%
EN
Sexual coercion affects approximately 58% of college-age females. Victims of sexual coercion often share similar characteristics, such as lower self-esteem, lower assertiveness, higher depressive symptoms, higher alcohol use, increased number of sexual partners, more romantic relationships, prior victimization, and relationship insecurity. Female athletes, on the other hand, have in common such protective factors as higher self-esteem, higher assertiveness, lower alcohol use, and fewer sexual partners. These, then, are assumed to guard against sexual coercion. The purpose of this study was to determine if female athletes were at a lower risk for sexual coercion and whether differences existed in levels of assertiveness, sexual assertiveness, self-esteem, sexual esteem, alcohol use, and the number of sexual partners. Participants included 174 college females (aged 19.94 ± 1.87 years). Participants were identified as an athlete if they reported a history of at least three years of athl iation etic involvement and described themselves as either a high school athlete or having participated in competitive sports (n=125). From among all the participants, 49 were classified as non-athletes. Data demonstrated no differences in either forced or coerced sexual contact history. Athletes and nonathletes differed neither in global nor sexual self-esteem, nor did they differ in global or sexual assertiveness. There was a significant difference across the groups in alcohol use: athletes scored higher on the AUDIT than non-athletes. The number of years of sport involvement positively correlated with the level of alcohol use. Athletes and non-athletes reported similar numbers of sexual partners. The findings of this study imply that athletics may indirectly place females at risk for sexual coercion through an assocwith higher alcohol use.
EN
Aim: The present study was designed to examine relationships between young people’s self-concepts and their perceptions of their futures Methods: High school students (n = 347) completed measures of the two domains of self‑concept, the evaluative domain, self-esteem, and the knowledge or structural domain, self-concept clarity. They also completed two measures of perceptions of their futures, optimism and future time perspective. Results: Both measures of self-concept were positively correlated with both measures of perception of the future. For both measures of perceptions of the future, regression analyses found that when perceptions of the future were regressed onto the two measures of self-concept perceptions of the future were significantly related to only self-esteem. Relationships between perceptions of the future and self-concept clarity were not significant. Analyses of mediation found that self-esteem mediated the relationship between self-concept clarity and both measures of perceptions of the future. Conclusion: Young people with a clearer sense of self and who have higher self-esteem are more optimistic and perceive a longer future than young people with a less clear sense of self and who have lower self-esteem; however, the effects of self-concept clarity disappear after the relationship between clarity and self-esteem are taken into account.
EN
In this article we analyse how participation in a healthy life style training program affected self-esteem and positive thinking of pupils from 4 post-primary schools of Mazovia Province. Teenagers participating in “Winners’ Training” were involved in action and encouraged to take responsibility for their own development in an area of physical fitness and psychological well- being. 21 days long training, covering healthy nutrition training, intensive physical exercise training, and positive thinking training, resulted – apart from noted increase of physical parameters – in improvement of reported by participants psychological well-being, and increase of the level of their self-esteem and of the level of positive thinking The factor, which most clearly affected the variation of obtained results, was the level of commitment to the entire program on the part of school top management, which resulted in greater commitment of involved teachers, and finally in greater commitment of pupils, who put more attention and effort in the training. Teenagers voluntarily participating in the program in “more committed” schools received not only coaching, but also a lot of positive information about the program and the issues it covered, and more appreciation of their participation in it. As it seems, the increase of the measured psychological parameters resulted to greater degree from the level of individual commitment than from the measured increase of physical fitness.
EN
Studies on narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder often emphasize the key role of self-esteem in the mechanisms of this disorder. In previous studies, self-esteem has often been treated as a permanent feature of an individual and has been tested using self-report questionnaires or, in some cases, using experimental methods. Assuming that self-esteem may differ depending on the situation, different methods should be used in order to observe and study the processes related to it. In order to collect self-narratives for the purposes of the study, a semi-structured interview method was prepared to examine the self-esteem regulation in social situations. During the interview, the participant answers questions related to personal life experiences. Based on the content of interviews of participants with a high level of narcissistic traits selected from 20 conducted interviews, a preliminary analysis of the proactivity and defensiveness of self-narratives was conducted. The analysis mainly concerns the autonarratives of experiences related to failures and conflicts as events particularly significant for the self-esteem of an individual. The results of the preliminary analyzes allow us to present conclusions regarding proactivity and defensiveness as well as the characteristics of self-narratives referring to self-esteem in narcissistic group.
EN
Introduction. One of the elements of the self-knowledge system is self-esteem. This system is continuously organized into a certain kind of a distinctive structure of ideas and notions. The aims of this paper, is to define the sense of self-esteem among first year physical education students. Material and methods. The method applied in the research was a diagnostic survey accompanied by questionnaire based on Fitts's “The Tennessee Self-concept Scale”, in a simplified term TSCS. The survey was conducted in Academic Year 2008/2009 among 667 respondents in eight state and non-state Polish academies. Results. The conducted survey indicates that there is an obvious tendency for students to have high self-esteem. Such a high level falls within the remit of the majority of aspects: moral-ethical self, family self and personal-self. Moreover, a high level of self-esteem was recognized in students' global sense of self-esteem and in self-esteem concerning personal-self. Crucially, the medium level of self-esteem concerning behaviour was declared by a considerable percentage of the respondents. The high level of global self-esteem was definitely assigned to female students whereas the medium level was noticed among male students. Conclusion. One of the key elements of human personality is the sense of selfesteem which influences both the level of self-acceptance and self-awareness. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to develop these skills and the psychophysical characteristics in the process of upbringing and educating.
PL
The paper presents the results of research on the level of self-esteem of participants of high seas cruises that implement the idea of sail training and are a non-standard form of informal education. The study involved 124 people, including 65 girls and 59 boys aged 13 to 18 years old, who can be considered as youth with special educational needs. They were participants of the Krzysztof Baranowski School Under Sails in 2015 and 2016, the cruise of the 42nd General Secondary School in Warsaw in 2016 and the Catholic School Under Sails in 2017. The results show a statistically significant increase in the level of self-esteem measured with the SES scale. The level of self-esteem of participants after the cruise is significantly higher than that of their peers from standardisation groups. It can be assumed that various types of Schools Under Sails are an attractive way to educate young people.
EN
The article is an analysis of the results of the studies conducted in a group of socially maladjusted youth in whose case the family court applied educational measures, i.e. placed them in a Youth Educational Centre. The aim of the study was to find out the correlations between self-esteem, personality traits of maladjusted adolescents, and the environmental determinants (support factors and limiting factors). A total of 481 juveniles staying in Youth Educational Centres (YEC) participated in the study. The analysis showed that in the model the significant predictors of self-esteem were neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness and negative relations at school. The obtained research results are to be used in designing methodological solutions in order to support social rehabilitation and education activities carried out both in an open environment and in social rehabilitation facilities.
EN
The present study was designed to verify hypothesized predictor effects for five anger-related variables, i.e. trait anger, anger expression-out, anger expression-in, anger control-out, and anger-control-in. A sample of 138 students completed measures for FFM personality traits (NEO-FFI), self-esteem (SES), shyness (RCBS), and anger (STAXI-2). The study confirmed the effects of neuroticism and agreeableness as being the chief personality predictors of anger; however, for the domain of anger expression-in, an unexpected role of extraversion was revealed. Furthermore, introducing self-esteem and shyness changed some effects of FFM traits. Entering self-esteem as an additional predictor improved the predictability of anger control-in. Additionally, a mediation effect of shyness was revealed for the relation between extraversion and anger expression-in.
EN
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of stereotypical and counter - stereotypical information on the self - esteem and congnitive performance of 10-year-old children. Our sample consisted of 37 girls and 37 boys. Children were presented with 10 "mathematical" puzzles in three experimental conditions: stereotypical (boy are better), counter-stereotypical (girls are better), and the control condition (no particular information). Self - esteem was measured usin a non - verbal task. The results showed a significant differences between control and experimental conditions, while boys showed a significant drop in self-esteem and performance in the counter-stereotypical condition as compared to the control condition and significant lift in self-esteem and performance in the stereotypical condition as compared to the control condition.
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2013
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tom 57
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nr 1
5-11
EN
Sexual coercion affects approximately 58% of college-age females. Victims of sexual coercion often share similar characteristics, such as lower self-esteem, lower assertiveness, higher depressive symptoms, higher alcohol use, increased number of sexual partners, more romantic relationships, prior victimization, and relationship insecurity. Female athletes, on the other hand, have in common such protective factors as higher self-esteem, higher assertiveness, lower alcohol use, and fewer sexual partners. These, then, are assumed to guard against sexual coercion. The purpose of this study was to determine if female athletes were at a lower risk for sexual coercion and whether differences existed in levels of assertiveness, sexual assertiveness, self-esteem, sexual esteem, alcohol use, and the number of sexual partners. Participants included 174 college females (aged 19.94 ± 1.87 years). Participants were identified as an athlete if they reported a history of at least three years of athl iation etic involvement and described themselves as either a high school athlete or having participated in competitive sports (n=125). From among all the participants, 49 were classified as non-athletes. Data demonstrated no differences in either forced or coerced sexual contact history. Athletes and nonathletes differed neither in global nor sexual self-esteem, nor did they differ in global or sexual assertiveness. There was a significant difference across the groups in alcohol use: athletes scored higher on the AUDIT than non-athletes. The number of years of sport involvement positively correlated with the level of alcohol use. Athletes and non-athletes reported similar numbers of sexual partners. The findings of this study imply that athletics may indirectly place females at risk for sexual coercion through an assocwith higher alcohol use.
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