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EN
The article considers the categories of «creativity», «creation» (creative work), creative abilities and «competence» in the context of professional activity of a composer. The role of creativity in a composer’s work is analyzed. Competence-based approach in education is connected in the paper with the process of teaching creativity to future composers. Some technological highlights of teaching composers creativity on the basis of competence -based approach are viewed.
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The present paper discusses the relation between the adolescent identity and the features of creative personality. The concept of identity comes from Berzonsky who, according to the participation of cognitive strategies in identity construction, distinguished three basic processually oriented identity styles: informational, normative, diffuse/avoidant. This author devotes special attention to the extent of that part of formed identity that he calls 'commitment'. The creativity of personality also takes part as a factor in identity formation. The developing creative personality may reach identity redefinition sooner and avoid role diffusion. Goal: To identify how the selected adolescent personality traits contribute to identity construction and to determine the interrelation among the variables. Materials and methods: Identity style questionnaire (Berzonsky), WKOPAY (Khatena, Torrance). Results and conclusions: There is a mutual relationship among the traits of creative personality and adolescent identity styles. The selected traits of creative personality influence identity construction. 'Authority' acceptance and disciplined imagination contribute to identity formation in the sense of obligation. A lower degree of authority acceptance as well as of other personality traits supports the active formation of autonomous adolescent identity. Adolescents with their autonomous formed identity, who rely on themselves to a higher degree in their autonomous identity formation, reject authorities. Vice versa, adolescents with unformed identity tend to uncritical acceptance of the opinions and attitudes of those in authority.
EN
The study can be seen as a pilot one to investigate the intrapsychic bonds of coping strategies, rigidity and a part of creativity (divergent thinking). The main results show, that more rigid individuals have tendencies to be submissive and nonintrusive in social relationships, they are emotionally instable, hostile and not confident to their environment. Creativity can be an effective regulator of successful coping. Prosocial fulfillment can boost successful coping with demanding situations, it is an important precondition of effective 'functioning' of a healthy and integrated personality. This obviously assumes increased level of flexibility and it means that by a slow removal of manifestations of an individual's rigidity, by a more effective education, the selection of coping strategies can be channeled in an adequate direction. And this is the reason why it is also inevitable further to observe and examine their intrapsychic bonds.
EN
An attempt was made to explore the connections between creativity and computer use using in-depth interviews. A sample of people in various occupations were asked how and why they used the computer at work, how they had learnt to use it, how use of this new technology had changed their work, and what their general views were on the spread of computers. Analysis of the interviews led to the conclusion that the scope offered by the new technology is being exploited more fully by those in more creative jobs, but the method of computer use depends not only creative opportunities in the work but on the character of the occupation. There is an example of this in the difference between artists and technicians. The former may be more creative traditionally, but the character of their work means they have less use for computers than the less artistic technicians, for whom using the latest technology is essential..
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This article presents the importance of creative and innovative thinking in the activities of small and medium enterprises. In the first part of the article the situation of the private sector in the years 1945 - 1989 was presented. The process of marketization of private enterprises is discussed, and both quantitative and qualitative criteria for small and medium enterprises were presented. In the second part a theoretical discussion of creativity and innovation as well as data from surveys on the innovativeness of Polish small and medium-sized companies conducted :by the Central Statistical Office and the Polish Agency for Enterprise Development were presented.
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(Polish title: Daimonion Sokratesa, neuroza Kierkegaarda, szalenstwo Nietzschego. Psychologia twórczosci naukowej, metodologia badan naukowych). The first part of the paper presents the discussion concerning the relations between psychological development, psychopathology and creativity. Kazimierz Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration provide the conceptual framework of the undertaken discussion The second part of the paper considers the role of psychological crises and unconsciousness in creative processes and creative behaviors of scientists.
EN
The purpose of this research is to find out whether creative behaviour within organisation is related to the employee's position in the organisation and to the size and ownership type of the organisation. 337 participants of the research were asked to fill in the Creativity in Workplace Questionnaire KAMP (Kwasniewska 2005) (Polish: Kwestionariusz Aktywnosci Twórczej w Miejscu Pracy) which was constructed for the purpose of this survey. According to the hypotheses, results of the research have shown that most creative in their workplaces are people occupying high positions in small, private organisations. Nowadays, managers seem to face the challenge of creating climate supporting creativity on each level of organizational hierarchy. Such climate is necessary in both private and governmental institutions no matter big or small.
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The study focuses on the connection between the birth-order in a sibling constellation and the creativity and personality traits of adolescents. The study searches for the answer to questions of whether creativity is connected with the birth-order in the sibling constellation (in the sense of the position among siblings and gender) and what personality traits it is connected to. The personality traits of the individual positions in the birth-order (first-born, second-born, the middle, the youngest and the only child) are compared. The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT) and the Urban Creative Thinking Test (TSD-Z) were applied for creativity identification. To measure personality dimensions, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory was applied to a sample of 158 adolescents - University students of humanities and artistic-technical departments (mean age 19.91 years). The data on family constellation (birth-order, size of family, family and sibling constellation, age differences, etc.) were gathered, based on our own Questionnaire of Family Constellation. Our results confirmed the higher performance of the second-born adolescents in the Torrance Creative Thinking Test. The adolescents that grew up with a sibling of the same gender were more conscientious and more extravert. The creativity performance of a woman was higher if she grew up with a brother and a sister. The men growing up with a brother and a sister were more agreeable than the women in the same sibling constellation.
EN
As upbringing means: 1) to prepare an individual to live in a constantly changing society, 2) to discover human’s strengths, and to inspire him creatively, 3) to enhance independence in the urge to achieve valuable individual and social goals, 4) “team creativity” which brings unexpected results, 5) valuable changes and 6) to precise an ideal, which leads the way in upbringing, and which is the focus of imagination and actions of educational subjects, the author of the text adopted the idea of upbringing as a synonym of creativity. On the basis of a historical evolution of the term creativity, she showed important aspects in modern understanding of this concept of creativity. As creativity and upbringing are conditioned by exo- and endogenous factors, she presented the meaning of systematology for the pedagogy of creativity and the role of a pedagogically creative teacher in the upbringing of an individual. In the course of divagations she accounted for creative upbringing in a systemic depiction.
Studia Psychologica
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2004
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tom 46
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nr 4
305-310
EN
Contribution to the conceptualization of a new research area is lying at the interface of psychology of creativity and of advertising. The object of investigation of the psychology of creative advertising is not merely a study of the authors of advertising as such, but also an analysis of creative expressions in the advertising products. Here we shall focus on a theoretical definition of the object of investigation in the psychology of advertising, on indicators of creative force and a search for common criteria of creativity in a consensual assessment of creativity by experts. Next, we shall outline the selected research procedures and methods taking support primarily in a qualitative analysis of interviews with the 'artificers of advertising' - the copywriters.
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Content available remote Kim jest geniusz?
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EN
Cesare Lombroso created a basis of the consideration about genius as phenomenon. The similar subject analysed Ernst Kretschmer. The both authors underlined duality of genius nature distinctly. On the one hand genius is an emanation of unusual talent, on the other hand genius is connected with element of psychopatology and social rejection. Finding a new way of thinking will be possible, if a talented person’s mental structure is loosen. It means: previous solution must be rejection, researcher revolts against the authorities and he can come into conflict with a professional environment. From this point of view life of genius is full of dramatic evidences, the same like life of a polish researcher Julian Ochorowicz. In Ochorowicz case the most controversial were his studies over hypnotism and mediumism. These researches were a from of analyzing of human cognitional skills, special in the case of hysterics.
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The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between different intensity of creative attitudes and the level of social competences and coping with stress style among first-year students. The theoretical basis was the Stanislaw Popek Theory of Creative Attitudes, Anna Matczak Theory of Social Competences and N.S. Endler and J.D. Parker Theory of Coping with Stress Style. There were 130 students evaluated by Creative Behaviour Questionnaire KANH by S. Popek, Social Competences Inventory KKS by A. Matczak and Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire CISS by N.S. Endler and J.D. Parker, in Polish adaptation by Szczepaniak, Wrześniewski. It was found that, there are differences in social competence levels and coping style among participants with different intensity of creative attitude. In general, creative people have higher social skills than the people with imitative attitudes. They have higher scores in KKS Inventory than once with imitative attitudes in the following scales: social exposure situations behavior (ES), situations requiring assertive behavior (A) and in the overall result (WL). Also people with medium intensity of creativity have higher social competences than those with imitative attitudes. Participants with creative attitudes are more problems oriented than people with imitative attitudes and with medium level of creativity. They also have lower scores in CISS Questionnaire, in scales: emotion-focused coping, avoidance-focused coping, including involving into substitute activities, like watching TV or playing computer games.
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Content available remote TVORBA A SEBAKRITIKA
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The study attempts to trace self-critical elements related to the reflection of film art on the three examples. The first example refers to the debutants of the French new wave, who began their career as film critics around the magazine Cahiers du Cinema. Later they moved from critical reflection of contemporary cinema to self-critical new film making, trying no longer repeat the past mistakes, which were in the sharp contrast to their own definition of film making. The second example relates to the functioning of self-critical reflection of the author who discusses his work from the adequate time perspective, as in the book of interviews between F. Truffaut and A. Hitchcock. A third example, the film by Korean director Kim Ki Duk Arirang (2011), critically describes his current situation which the author controls the best through the communication medium.
EN
This paper analyses the contribution of specific cognitive functions on creative performance. The main question was which cognitive variables differentiate extreme levels of creative performance and therefore can characterize highly creative college students. A sample of Portuguese university students of Fine Arts and Literature (n=166) took part in this study. A battery of verbal and figural cognitive tasks, as well as two kinds of creative tasks (text and poster production) have been considered. Results showed that there were mostly the same cognitive dimensions (figurative reasoning, divergent thinking, insight problem solving, and problem-finding), which differentiate extreme levels of creative performance in both text and poster productions. These results are discussed considering the relevance of the cognitive approach to explain creativity. Some practical ideas, possible to put into the educational context, are also discussed.
EN
The interrelation of creativity and inspection time was tested with 97 subjects. Based on former results it was presumed that psychometric creativity - similar to psychometric intelligence - is related to inspection time. According to former data, mental abilities display low or medium negative correlation with information processing on large samples. I.e., in tests, high and low achievement is accompanied by fast and slow reaction time, respectively, in the case of 10-20% of subjects. The author obtained a correlation that is of the same direction but weaker than those published in the literature. Comparing high and low creativity test achievements and the quality of information processing he found that both show individual differences, which, however, do not coincide. Subjects requiring twice-three times longer inspection time or twice-three times more of presentations include persons of high, medium and low creativity alike.
EN
According to possibilism, or non-actualism, fictional characters are possible individuals. Possibilist accounts of fiction do not only assign the intuitively correct truth-conditions to sentences in a fiction, but has the potential to provide powerful explanatory models for a wide range of phenomena associated with fiction (though these two aspects of possibilism are, the author argues, crucially distinct). Apart from the classic defence by David Lewis, the idea of modelling fiction in terms of possible worlds has been widely criticized. In this article, the author provides a defence of a possibilist account against some lines of criticism. To do so, he assumes that names for fictional characters are directly referential and a possible worlds model that accommodates trans-world identity. On this background, he argues, it is possible to construct an elegant model of fictional discourse using familiar models of information exchange in ordinary discourse, and he sketches how this model can be used to i) make a natural distinction between fictional and counterfactual discourse, ii) account for creativity, and iii) sustain a natural definition of truth-in-fiction that avoids certain familiar objections to possibilism. Though he sets aside questions about the metaphysical commitments of a possible-world interpretation here, there is accordingly reason to think that the battle over possibilist treatments of fiction will have to be fought over metaphysical foundations rather than technical shortcomings.
EN
In the article the research of relations between creativity, innovativeness and development of organization was presented. In the light of result there is significant influence of innovativeness on development of organization and inversely dependency in the case of its potential. On the results of organization affects innovativeness, but creativity, as pra-source, affects directly or indirectly on all variables.
EN
In this paper, several principles that define the creative condition are formulated. The shift from the everyday attitude to the creative one may be described as a disruption of both normal perception and established structures of meaning. This can happen to us by chance, but it can also be induced deliberately. Creative thinking techniques from Edward De Bono, as well as some improvisational activities, aim intentionally to disturb the natural perception and thus open the area of not-knowing. This is not the Socratic not-knowing which poses a question about what we do not know and thus, at the same time, indicates the direction whence the answer should be expected. Creative not-knowing only opens up the space in which one can afford to delay the question. This paper shows how creative not-knowing differs from the hermeneutical understanding of openness, and why we should learn something new from delaying a question instead of posing it.
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The paper is of an informative character and presents a unique phenomenon, namely the Bealtaine Festival. In the first part, the authoress cites demography of Irish society and refers to the forecasts concerning the ageing of the world's population. The second part of the article entitled Bealtaine - general information covers the key organizational assumptions of the Festival. Furthermore, the authoress mentions some of the projects and events that took place during the 2006 and 2007 Festivals. Next part of the article entitled Bealtaine 2008 is devoted to some basic information about the 2008 Festival. Given the nationwide nature of the Bealtaine Festival, the paper does not cover all of the events taking place there limiting the description to two unique projects. Moreover, the authoress notes that although the Bealtaine might have been a pioneering venture, the idea of such events had already been put into practice in Wales and the Netherlands. Finally, a brief summary stresses the importance of the Festival for socio-cultural life in the Republic of Ireland.
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Content available remote Problem twórczości w koncepcji Jana Mazurkiewicza
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Jan Mazurkiewicz (1871-1947), pioneer of the Polish school in psychiatry, linked the problem of the genius and creator with the level of development of the nervous system and its emotional function. The nervous system and its anatomical basis display vertical hierarchy. Due to that special structure, emotional and cognitive dynamisms are transformed and due to features of the cerebral cortex and specific emotionality bound with this structure (the frontal lobes) man is able to create science, culture, and art. When the control of the higher nerve centers is in disorder, the person goes mad, often destructive in realm of culture and society. Thus the genius, present in culture of many generations, fights with madness that destroys and kills. The function of the frontal-logical dynamisms is stronger, however structurally and developmentally it is the weakest. The results obtained by J. Mazurkiewicz seem to be, as compared with contemporary state of the art in science, still actual since they are based on relevant clinical evidence.
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