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In as early as the 19th century, the Austrian Empire was the symbol of conservatism and reactionism in the eyes of European as well as Czech liberals. Was the Austrian monarchy thus on the path to modernity in as early as the 19th century, or was it the chief guardian of traditions and old orders? The experience of Joseph II's reforms rooted an aversion towards excessive radicalism and revolutionary solutions and a peaceful course of gradual reforms met with success. We inherited an aversion to professional politics run by parliament from the monarchy. With this we can also explain the sympathy that a significant part of the public has towards governments comprised of specialists. The monarchy's legacy also consists of an exaggerated respect towards the heads of state, in the Austrian Empire, Czechs also learned to live with other nations in a joint political territory. The ruling elite made no effort to develop patriotism in the Austrian Empire and counted solely on dynastic loyalty. It was the absence of feelings for all of Austria that allowed the resulting vacuum to be filled with particular (often intolerant) forms of nationalism.
(Slovak title: Studenti, obchodnici, obchodni cestujuci a remeselnicki tovarisi pod drobnohladom habsburskej pasovej politiky v rokoch 1815 - 1848). This study is concerned with analysis and interpretation of Habsburg policy on passports and foreign visitors in relation to four specific groups. It enables us to penetrate into the 'everyday' struggle of the Austrian police to preserve the status quo in the Habsburg Monarchy in the period of formation of the ideologies of liberalism, nationalism and communism. Thorough verification of people entering the territory of the Austrian Empire, careful investigation of all possible 'harmful' influences from which it was necessary to protect the population, 'hermetic' closure of frontiers on one side, and the economic pressures of international co-operation, development of intellectual culture, national movements, bureaucratization with typical 'holes in the laws' and expressions of official sloppiness on the other, represent the main limits within which Austrian passport policy moved in the first half of the 19th century.
This study is concerned with the confrontation between the Habsburg state police and the widespread secret Italian Carbonari movement after the Congress of Vienna. One side had the aim of securing the status quo in the multi-national Austrian Empire, while the other aimed at the creation of a united Italian state. A wide range of police methods are presented, starting with the organization of the police institutions in the Kingdom of Lombardy and Venetia (the General Police Directorates and Post Offices in Milan and Venice), and continuing with the reports of Austrian representatives abroad and cooperation with the individual Italian governments, expressed in rigorous passport, censorship and police regulations and measures. These methods ended with attempts to eliminate real and possible representatives of the opposition, either legally as in the cases of Pellico, Confalonieri or Maroncelli or in some cases arbitrarily as with Maghella.
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