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EN
The problem connected with an issue of emotions has currently become one of the key-approaches especially in microsociology. The above article constitutes a compressed presentation concerning views of the most prominent sociologists who adapted the notion of shame as well as its alternative: the notion of pride for the sociological purposes. The notion of shame is understood as a signal of disturbance or breach of the social bonds. In this context, it becomes a universal perspective and an analytical concept binding its social and individual aspects, thus making references to the works of Charles Cooley. The social character of shame allows to differentiate its two basic types: unconscious and conscious shame. The nature of the latter is a constructive one. The conscious shame allows the bonds to be rebuilt, whereas the unconscious one, both in the individual and social perspective possesses a destructive potential that generates aggression (shame/rage spiral). The problem lies in the fact that the unconscious shame occurs incomparably more often than its alternative because the societies of the Occident tend to taboo shame, so that ‘it's a shame to be ashamed' (Thomas).The understanding of shame as a supreme, universal emotion performing several functions has found a number of scientific confirmations. The aim of this article is to draw the attention of the reader that this particular interpretation has a deep theological justification. The article is an analysis of the Old Testament's text entitled The Fall, which depicts shame and sin as the main categories referring to the Christian human anthropology, and as the foundation of a human nature. The Confession is also an indication, how important the self-awareness of shame and the resistance of shame of the individual is towards its practice. The verbalization of the experience of shame/sin, which in a Christian tradition has a character of a public declaration, enables the transfer of the unconscious shame to the consciousness resulting in the appearance of a constructive psychological potential within an understanding of a suggested approach. Today, according to the Author, the popularity of social-networking websites is an expression of a need and search for unconscious and shameful essences, those which violate the social bonds. The anonymity of the Internet allows for the experiments involving shameful contents including the social mirror.
EN
One of alarming situation at present times is vanishing sense of a shame. It is caused mainly by mass media that create models of behaving that are wiping out from human consciousness patterns which were created by past generations. Almost every nation has its own pattern of a shame. Nowadays, a phenomenon of loosing any sense of a shame can be seen especially among young people.They wear more and more often clothes exposing intimate parts of human body. In front of such situation a question is asked about a nature and causes of the shame. Is the shame something right or something wrong? Is there any sense of a shame? An answer to this question should help in a process of bringing up young people. One of sources that could be helpful in looking for an answer is the Bible. According to biblical texts, especially Gen 1-3, a shame is a form of defense of man's dignity. Sense of a shame arises from the original sin. The essence of this sin is a will to decide about what is good and what is evil. Man can not decide about that, because only God as Creator of the whole universe can decide what is good and what is evil and forbidden to a man. In spite of that man broke down the God's commandments. The proper relations between people were destroyed, instead of love appeared a desire. The main aim of a shame is to keep proper relation between people based on love instead of desire. Because of that a sense of a shame is very important for a man and should be treated as one of a main point in education.
Studia Psychologica
|
2020
|
tom 62
|
nr 1
58 – 73
EN
Studies have found that shame and aggression are closely connected, and self-blaming and re-planning strategies can regulate an individual’s shame. This study conducted two experiments to investigate the effects of self-regulation of shame on explicit and implicit aggressiveness of adolescents. Shame was induced in both experiments by audio recordings describing different shameful situations that adolescents may experience in daily life. The participants of 7th grade were required to self-regulate their shame by self-blaming strategy, re-planning strategy, or non-regulation, and rated their explicit aggressiveness in Study 1 and did implicit association test (IAT) in Study 2, respectively. The current studies found that the regulation of shame with self-blaming strategy enhanced explicit aggression, but did not affect the bias of implicit aggression.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
|
2023
|
tom 78
|
nr 4
259 – 272
EN
There are two passages in Plato’s Apology with questions introduced by a verb relating to shame. In 28b, a representative of the Athenian citizens asks Socrates, if he is not ashamed to follow his philosophical occupation even when it might cost him life. Later, in 29d, it is Socrates who asks an imaginary Athenian, if he is not ashamed to care for things of illusory value and neglect those that are really important. The verb used in these two questions apparently refers to two different notions of shame: the first one is marked by fear of being disregarded by the others, the other one is an outcome of endeavour for an inner coherence. The article maps this process of internalization of shame as a transformation of the shame before others into shame relating to oneself. This change of perspective will be documented via two versions of the tale of Gyges and his magic ring (in Herodotus and in Plato). Herodotus’ Gyges acts as a heteronomous agent moved by the will of the others; the character in Book 2 of Plato’s Republic, on the other hand, is, thanks to the power of a magic ring, autonomous and immune to the gaze of the other but acts unjustly in the end. The Socratic moral agent in this context appears to be Anti-Gyges, determined to act justly with no regard for external approval or its lack. He does not necessarily disregard shame, but his shame is based on an aesthetics of self and on his power to transform his character by means of care of the self.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
|
2023
|
tom 78
|
nr 4
273 – 284
EN
The concept of shame (αἰσχύνη) plays a cardinal role in Plato’s Gorgias. Plato works with this concept by dramatically influencing the characters’ actions and discourses throughout the dialogue. It has the most frequent and most important position in the part in which Socrates discusses with the young Athenian politician Callicles. The study analyses and interprets the ways in which Plato’s Callicles worked with shame in his “opening speech” (482c4 – 486d1). The author focuses on the distinction between two functions of shame: (1) negative – (1.1) as an impulse to correct opinions, (1.2) as a consequence of lack of courage, (1.3) as a tool of the weak to control the “naturally strong” and (2) positive – as an instrument of discredit (Callicles’ attempt to bring shame to Socrates).
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