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EN
Tolerance is an imperfect human response to human imperfectness, and is revealed, among other phenomena, in an inevitably subjective character of the criteria which we use in making moral choices. Freedom of citizens in the face of law entails freedom of accepting one’s own hierarchy of values, within the area encircled by the borderlines of the rule of respect to the freedom of others. Tolerance which is defined in that way is a mode of conflict-free co-existence of representatives of various cultural, religious world-views traditions in a global society. It should be implemented in legal norms as well as by public institutions.
EN
The following article aims to present the contemporary situation of foster care in the Czech Republic. The overall situation contributes to many dilemmas that occur as new situations arise in the foster care system and in the context of children living outside the family home. Children ought to be given a possibility to develop their personality. The process, however, can be disturbed in their family home. The presented dilemmas can cause danger to children or become a promise of a good start in their adult life.
EN
Teaching is ranked as a prestigious occupation in national opinion polls. However, teachers themselves, when asked about problems at work, reported low wages and the lack of respect from students. The discrepancy between research findings about the social hierarchy of the profession and the perceptions of teachers themselves raises questions about the factors influencing the social image of the teaching profession. This article describes the influences on teachers’ social position, based on individual interviews with current and former teachers.
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Content available The problem of respect in environmental philosophy
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EN
The term respect is frequently used in ordinary communication however it also has a significant role in philosophical discussions focused on environmental ethics. This essay deals with the ambiguity of the term respect. The author analyzes respect from a philosophical point of view claiming that several possible interpretations of what the word respect means and what standards of behavior to which it is to be related. It is pointed out that the issue of whether respect should be understood as an attitude or behavior. The author highlights the problem of constraints imposed by respect and the relation of respect to intrinsic and instrumental value. The approach is analyzed also from the point of view of Kant’s ethics, nevertheless the author examines it also from the standpoints of various contemporary environmental ethicists (e.g. Taylor, Goodpaster, Katz, Lo). However, author concludes that understanding respect as a virtue appears to be a most promising approach in contemporary environmental ethics because it can solve the problem of finding balanced interpretation of respect.
5
Content available The Relevance of Civility Today
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EN
The paper emphasizes the contemporary relevance of civility, understood as a respectful way of treating the other and recognition of people’s differences and sensibilities. It outlines the sociological importance of civility as being connected with its role as both a normative guidance orienting us towards prescriptive ideals and as an empirical concept with important social impact on identities and actions. The paper examines Adam Smith’s theory which roots civility in a commercial society, analyses Elias’s (1994) history of civility as the folding of the logic of the civilizing process, and it debates theories linking the idea of civility to civil society. In conclusion, emphases are put on the importance of civility, seen as the act of respectful engaging with people across deep divisions, for the quality of democracy.
PL
The text is devoted to the analysis of civility, which practically disappeared from the contemporary pedagogical discourse (though not the humanistic one). The (re)construction of the concept is aimed at restoring the importance of civility as a form of civilised life and at arguents for learning, i.e. acquiring this quality. For this purpose, a review of historical concepts concerning civility is made, then the link of civility with customs and morals as a part of the civilising process is shown. At the end, its contemporary approach is proposed in a dual role and space: interpersonal and social, in the private and public spheres, in their mutual dependencies. It is assumed that the (re)construction of the concept, including the presentation of civility as a useful good and at the same time a manifestation of the human morality or the human condition in general, makes it possible to place it among the internal goods of education.
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EN
The paper presents the results of the research of the occupational prestige based on the synthesis of the materials of sociological research. Measured on a social level, the occupational prestige influences processes of reproduction of employment of the younger generation. It is important to extend the research practice in this area.
8
Content available remote Respect Towards Elderly Demented Patients
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Diametros
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2014
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nr 39
109-124
EN
One question of applied ethics is the status and proper treatment of marginal cases, i.e., of people who are not yet or not anymore in full possession of their rational capacities, such as elderly demented people. Does one belittle them if one does not treat them like normal human adults, or would it be disrespectful and demanding too much if one did? Are elderly demented even the proper object of respect? In this paper I explore what Kant would say about these questions if he had addressed them. I look at what Kantian respect is, how he justifies the requirement to respect others, and what it demands more specifically. My claim is that Kant conceives of respect as a maxim of not exalting oneself above others. One should adopt this attitude independently of what the other is like. Differences between normal human adults and marginal cases are important for how one should treat them, but ultimately not for the question of why one should treat them with respect. Accordingly, elderly demented people should be respected, and it depends on the individual case what kind of actions this implies.
EN
The main objective of this inquiry is to examine the reach and influence of the Unconditional Norm throughout Karol Wojtyła’s thinking in order to understand the Wojtylian personalistic norm and to propose it as the basis for all social interactions. To this end, our primary method is obtained from the study of Kant’s Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals, which exposes the theory of imperatives and in a special way is able to show, as opposed to utilitarianism, how it is that a person can never be a mere means, but is rather an end in itself. This Kantian concept had a profound impact on Wojtyła, who was also critical of utilitarian ethics and thus found great inspiration in the Kantian proposal. However, Wojtyła goes beyond the Kantian proposal because, although they coincide in many points, Wojtyła felt that the subject of experience was not sufficiently addressed, given that it had an a priori, and therefore insufficient, perspective of the personal self. Wojtyła’s Aristotelian-Thomist education, driven by the discovery of Max Scheler’s phenomenology, gave substance to a very original doctrine in both method and projection.
EN
Karl Heinrich Heydenreich (1764–1801), a now almost forgotten German thinker of the late Enlightenment, attempted his own transcendental-philosophical definition of the aesthetic category of the sublime in the article “Grundriß einer neuen Untersuchung über die Empfindungen des Erhabenen” (1789), which preceded Kant's Critique of Judgment by a year. Thanks to this endeavor, he was often described in the history of aesthetics as being a Kantian in aesthetics before Kant, but his article has not to this point received a detailed analysis. The present study shows that, in particular, Kant's moral-philosophical concept of respect for moral law played a crucial role in Heydenreich's reflections on the sensation of the sublime as a product of pure reason.
CS
Karl Heinrich Heydenreich (1764–1801), dnes téměř neznámý pozdně osvícenský německý myslitel, se v článku „Grundriß einer neuen Untersuchung über die Empfindungen des Erhabenen“ (1789), jenž o rok předcházel Kantově Kritice soudnosti, pokusil o vlastní transcendentálně-filosofickou definici estetické kategorie vznešena. Díky tomuto počinu byl sice v dějinách estetiky nejednou líčen jako kantián v estetice před Kantem, podrobné analýzy se však jeho článku dosud nedostalo. Předložená studie ukazuje, že zásadní roli v Heydenreichově úvaze o pocitu vznešena coby produktu čistého rozumu sehrál zejména Kantův morálně-filosofický koncept pocitu úcty k mravnímu zákonu.
EN
Esta sentencia del Tribunal de la Rota de la Nunciatura Apostólica confirma una sentencia de nulidad matrimonial por causa del miedo grave y externamente inferido (temor reverencial). En los tribunales eclesiásticos unos 10% de los procesos matrimoniales se tramita por causa del miedo grave. En esta sentencia el ponente estudia los diversos aspectos de este vicio del consentimiento matrimonial como la gravedad, su carácter extrínseco e indeclinable, la antecedencia a la prestación del consentimiento. Esta sentencia puede resultar muy interesante para conocer la relación que existe entre la operatividad de la amenaza y la reactividad de la perturbación psíquica subsiguiente.
EN
Liking and respect are postulated as two dimensions of interpersonal attitudes. Liking-disliking is an idiosyncratic response which depends mostly on how target persons influence interests and well-being of the attitude holder and is accompanied by beliefs in their communal traits. Respect-disrespect is a socially shared response which depends mostly on the social status of target persons and is accompanied by beliefs in their agency. This Self-interest /Status Model (SSM) of differences between liking and respect was tested in two studies. It was predicted and found that respect responses (and underlying judgments of agentic traits) are socially shared to higher extent than liking responses (and underlying judgments of communal traits).
PL
Plato who is an excellent expert of the human nature, makes the subject of his interest the old age and the life of the people of advanced age as well. The reflection on the fate of the old people is not the main subject of deliberation in the Plato’s dialogues but appears mainly in the context of the social and political conception of the ideal state. The issues connected with the life and function of the old people in social structures are the subject of the discussion e.g. in the Laws. Plato presents not only his theoretical deliberation about the old age but also makes the old men the interlocutors in his dialogues to depict the portrait of the members of the oldest social group and to portrait their attitude to life and the passing of time. Cephalus who resigned himself to his fate in the Republic, three old men who make an effort to enact the just code of laws in the Platonic Laws, or old Socrates, who in the Crito and Phaedo waits for the death penalty, faithful to his ideals to the end of his days. These are only a few examples of the elderly people, presented by philosopher, who become embedded in the memory of the readers of the Platonic dialogues. The aim of this article is to provide the answers to the questions, how is the old age perceived by Plato and what social role the elderly people fulfill in his idealisticconception of the state. I will also consider the way in which Plato portrayed the old people who were the main characters in the Republic and Laws.
EN
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the paper is to recreate and show the dignity awareness of young people in the aspect of their experiences in various life situations. THE RESEARCH PROBLEM AND METHODS: The presented research problem concerns the answer to the question of how the respondents understand the personal dignity of a person, how they evaluate outstanding individuals with a high level of acquired dignity. The basis for empirical considerations are the results of qualitative research carried out in 2017-2018 among various categories of young people. THE PROCESS OF ARGUMENTATION: Referring to scientific studies, an interdisciplinary reflection was made on the understanding of the concept of dignity and the results were confronted with the opinions of the respondents. RESEARCH RESULTS: Qualitative research shows that about 60% of respondents declare positive - sometimes vague - assessments of people with a high sense of self-esteem. Only every tenth respondent expressed negative opinions about such people. Some respondents had difficulty giving closer definitions of what personal dignity is or considered the concept indefinable. CONCLUSIONS, INNOVATIONS, AND RECOMENDATIONS In a situation where many people lose the proper sense of personal dignity, the postulate of awakening the sense of dignity and respect it becomes a challenge and an educational task for all subjects of interaction in educational and didactic processes.
PL
CEL NAUKOWY: Celem artykułu jest odtworzenie i pokazanie świadomości godnościowej młodzieży w aspekcie jej doświadczeń w różnych sytuacjach życiowych. PROBLEM I METODY BADAWCZE: Przedstawiony problem badawczy dotyczy odpowiedzi na pytanie, jak badani rozumieją godność osobistą człowieka, jak oceniają wybitne jednostki o wysokim poziomie godności nabytej. Podstawą do rozważań empirycznych są wyniki badań jakościowych zrealizowanych w latach 2017-2018 wśród różnych kategorii młodzieży uczącej się lub studiującej. PROCES WYWODU: Odwołując się do opracowań naukowych, dokonano interdyscyplinarnej refleksji nad rozumieniem pojęcia godność i skonfrontowano wyniki z opiniami badanych. WYNIKI ANALIZY NAUKOWEJ: Z przeprowadzonych badań jakościowych wynika, że około 60% badanych deklaruje pozytywne – niekiedy ogólnikowe – oceny o ludziach charakteryzujących się wysokim poczuciem godności własnej. Tylko co dziesiąty badany wyrażał negatywne oceny o takich osobach. Niektórzy ankietowani mieli trudności z podaniem bliższych określeń, czym jest godność osobista, lub uważali to pojęcie za niedefiniowalne. WNIOSKI, INNOWACJE, REKOMENDACJE: W sytuacji, gdy wielu ludzi traci właściwe poczucie godności osobistej, postulat budzenia poczucia godności i jej poszanowania staje się wyzwaniem i zadaniem edukacyjnym dla wszystkich podmiotów interakcji w procesach wychowawczych i dydaktycznych.
EN
In this paper the author explores the conditions under which inter-religious dialogue can be a transformative process not only of the interlocutor’s understanding of the be-liefs and values of the religiously different other but also her attitude toward him or her. The proposition elucidated and defended is that, to be transformative, the dialogue should be God-centered, objective, empathic, and it should be grounded in the values of equality, respect, and toleration. The paper is composed of two parts. The first is devot-ed to an analysis of the concept of dialogue in general and of inter-religious dialogue in particular: What are the structural elements of dialogue between (a) individuals and (b) religious communities? The second part is devoted to an analysis of the conditions under which inter-religious dialogue can be a transformative process. The focus in this analysis is on the following question: What does it take for a person who has grown up in a certain religion, who understands herself and in fact lives from the standpoint that religion, to discern the religious truth proclaimed by another religion, to comprehend it, appreciate it, assent to it, and incorporate it in the structure of her mind or worldview? We may construct a formidable strategy, one that wins the blessing of reason, still, the question remains: How can a community, which tends to be exclusivist in its religious orientation, change its understanding of God or attitude toward the religious different other?
EN
First I discuss the rights as unavoidable part of the human dignity. There are four possible relations: dignity has a wider extension, the volume of both is equivalent, dig-nity includes in itself a bundle of rights, or it is just a simple right. There are good rea-sons to support the last two, even the last position. Then I evaluate some of the chal-lenging innovations in the medical technology, if they are acceptable in front of this close connection. The focus falls on three topics: PGD, cloning, and fusion of human-animal cells. Using moral principles such as non discrimination and non instrumentali-zation I look for some normative framing.
EN
The aim of this article is to show from the position of liberal perfectionists that the arguments of public reason liberalism about the unacceptability of perfectionist efforts and controversial positions are unconvincing. In the first part, we will examine the moral respect objection to perfectionism as was formulated by Martha Nussbaum and show that such arguments fail, after which we will introduce a more appropriate, perfectionist conception. In the second part, we will address a more practical question which illustrates well the greater plausibility of the perfectionist position. We will critique an attempt to apply the respect-based argument to perfectionist subsidies, which the leading theorist of liberalism of public reason, Jonathan Quong, has rejected as manipulative. In the third part, we move from these everyday questions of political decision-making to how liberals of public reason use respect in controversial, cultural-ethical issues. Relying on neutral political values is shown to be an unsustainable and illusory solution in the pursuit of equal respect for all. These three lines of argumentation (i.e. theoretical, practical-political and cultural-ethical) will allow us to point out that the project of public reason liberalism brings with it far more problems than its proponents will acknowledge.
PL
Komunikacja interpersonalna jest procesem społecznym realizującym się między jednostkami. Znamionuje ją swoisty dynamizm, gdyż polega ona na odbiorze, przyjęciu, zrozumieniu oraz interpretacji informacji, które to dokonują się we wspólnocie zawiązującej się pomiędzy uczestnikami procesu. Jest ona zjawiskiem nieodwracalnym i towarzyszącym ludziom od narodzin aż do śmierci. Jej nieodzownym elementem i trwałym spoiwem powinien być szacunek. W odniesieniu do relacji wychowawczej komunikację opartą na szacunku uznać należy za jeden z predyktorów jej jakości
EN
Interpersonal communication is a social process between individuals. It is charac-terized by a specific dynamism, because it consists of the reception, acceptance, understanding and interpretation of information, which takes place in the community of participants of the cycle. It is an irreversible phenomenon that accompanies people from birth to death. Its indispensable element and durable bond should be respect. Regarding to the educational relationship based on respect, communication should be considered as one of the predictors of its quality.
20
Content available The Honor-Based Society, Past and Present
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EN
This paper asserts that honor-based peoples have and maintain a distinct cultural identity that is valid for at least eighty-five percent of the world population. It is necessarily considered relative to dignity-based societies which make up the other fifteen percent. Practically all dignity-based cultures originated during the Enlightenment; modern honor-based groups will oftentimes through diffusion manifest some dignity-based traits or observe fewer of the traditional honor-based features. This paper will survey both traditional and modern forms of the honor-based culture.
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