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1
Content available Absorpcja kredytów w sektorze gospodarstw domowych
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The aim of the article is to prove the role of credits in the functioning of household. The author indicates the effects credits may have on global demand and increase in consumptions utility. The credit absorption of households is related to favorable macroeconomic environment. The theoretical part of the article focuses on the macroeconomic factors. In the analytical part of the article the author presents adjustment processes in the commercial banks to the growing demand for these credits.
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Content available Kredyty w teorii racjonalnego wyboru konsumpcji
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The aim of the article is the analysis of using credits in the process of optimizing the consumption. The article is an attempt to join the theory of optional choice of household with the credit policy of banks. The criteria of optionality stem from the theory of money based on the category of “time preference”. In the theoretical considerations the author focuses on macroeconomic consequences of too high level of consumer credits.
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The present transition to market mechanisms of economy regulation accounts for an enhanced interest in conditions of microeffective functioning of enterprises. This creates a necessity to curb the traditional non-economic functions hitherto performed by these economic entities. Hence a topical issue is a question regarding advisability, scope and mode of the functioning of the so-called plant socio-welfare system. The article presents the findings of pilot studies, which aimed at determining employees options in this sphere. Due to a complex social role of these benefits there seems justified a view that one of premises behind a gradual departure from traditional tasks of an enterprise should be to gather evaluations of the socio-welfare system from employees themselves. A general conclusion ensuing from these, studies is that a necessity of seeking effectiveness-promoting solutions in the system of enterprise functioning should not be synonymous with abandoning automatically their socio-welfare functions.
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The author presents the findings of empirical studies focussed on changes in relations of retail prices within selected commodity groups. Differentiation of dynamics of prices for particular products observed in practice is not closely connected with growth of their production costs or with market disequilibrium. The main determinant differentiating this dynamics is a desire to achieve the highest possible profit per product unit. That reflects a desire of companies to attain an indispensable financial effect allowing them to fulfill their financial commitments towards the state budget. Such "fiscal orientation" in the pricing policy of companies does not create conditions that would favour rationalization of price relations themselves.
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In the article, the author attempts to prove rightness of a thesis that social services are an integral element of the necessary product and, thus, they constitute an immanent part of overail costs connected with the social reproduction process. Their level and scope are determined objectively in distribution of the Gross National Product. Hence, It Is an entirely different approach In relation to the concept of treating social services as a charity-type activity being competitive, to some extent, with other outlays in the economic sphere (e. 9 . net Investments In the material sphere). Further analysis has been focussed on main principles of the functioning of the budgetary system of financing these services, which would ensure internal cohesion of financial solutions with the function of services understood in this way.
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The paper sets forward to justify the objective necessity of creation and distribution of benefits of the social consumption fund in socialized companies. The author proceeds from an assumption that the company Is not only a production unit in the economic system but also a subject implementing tasks of the social policy including also the function of the social consumption fund. In the further part of the paper there is made an attempt at determination of qualification criteria of the company’s contribution to the social consumption fund. It becomes necessary to isolate the company's expenditure in this area in order to assess utilization of resources in accordance with functions of this fund at the company's level.
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The article concentrates on the problem of adjustment of the credit policy to the economic cycle, especially in the crisis times. A destabilisation of the economy and the financial system requires – on the one hand – enhancing of the central bank activity in the credit policy by performing the function of the lender of last resort (LOLR), on the other hand – enhancing of the commercial banks restrictive measures in the mechanisms of credit allocation. The above drives to the phenomenon of asymmetry of the credit policy performed by the central bank and commercial banks. Therefore, the aim of the article is indicating the conditions and consequences of enhancing this "credit channel" of the central bank and enhancing the restriction of the credit allocation by the commercial banks.
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The article concentrates on the innovative solutions in the distribution of retail credits which aim at enhancing the stability of the banks and their competitiveness in the market of debt instruments. The author admits that the role of households in the credit policy of the banks is growing. In order to enhance the quality of these claims, introducing innovations in the mechanisms of allocation, building the partnership relations between banks and their clients through enhancing conditions of contracts, enlargement of discount methods in optimizing methods of repayments, are needed. Another important field of innovative solutions is marketing, which - due to bigger and bigger competition in the credit markets - becomes permanent element of effective allocation mechanisms.
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The article analyzes social effects of Inflation, which are of a negative character. An attempt has been also made by the authors to prove the necessity of activating the social services system and modifying principles of their functioning in conditions of inflationary processes taking place in Poland n the 80’s.
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The article is an attempt at evaluation of the social perception of principles according to which services are distributed. Its main aim was to obtain an answer to the question whether the solutions in the field of pricing policy (costs covered by individuals) applied in practice fid social acceptance and what postulates were put forward to improve it . The article is based on questionnaire surveys concerning mechanisms adopted in distribution of goods and services in four main spheres of social consumption i.e. health care, recreation, child care and education, and culture. The main research problems included collecting information about the social opinion on: scope of individual contributions in distribution of services, postulated level of such contributions for different goods and services, and the problem of uniform or differentiated contributions. The empirical materials allowed to formulate more general socially accepted solutions in the sphere of distribution of such goods and services.
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