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1
Content available Szkic o współczesnej narratologii
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EN
The article discusses the issues of contemporary narratology. The author assumes that narratology is inextricably linked to poetics and rhetoric. The object of narratology is cultural space, which is created by texts in a particular rhetorical modality. However, its reflections includes subjects such as communication strategies and discursive practices. Each narrative discourse involves combining referential and communication events. According to the author, such a view of contemporary narratology opens up a number of new interpretation possibilities.
EN
In the Middle Age the rhetoric was one of the seven liberal arts. Its position in the medieval culture Has been confirmed by Cassiodor, Isidor of Sevilla, Augustin of Hippona and Martianus Capella. The medieval rhetoric was composedof five parts: inventio (invention), dispositio (disposition), elucutio (elocution), memoria (memory) and pronuntiatio (pronuntiation). Only three of them exertet real influence on the fine arts. Inventio controlled the proces of choice of the ideas, which have benn represented by images in work of arts. Dispositio collocated the images in the whole structure of work of art. Elocutio applicated some rhetorical figure in order to communicate some massages throughout the images. In the Middle Ages existed two sources, which inspired the mediewal rhetoric. The fitst Skurce was the ancien, greek and roman rhetoric , the second – the semitic, biblical rhetoric. In the Bible exist two important literary and rhetorical structures – the parallelism and the centripetal construction. These structures influenced some models of composition of narrative cycles and series of images. Rhetor – a hypothetical personage, educated in trivium and quatrivium and expert in the rhetoric, played important role in the mediewal culture. He collaborated with artist and he applicated the rhetorical methods and rhetorical figure in the creation of works of art.
PL
The Assayer of Galileo Galilei is a classical text of the Italian literature. It was written in the context of discussions on comets and is a response, word by word, to the Libra astronomica ac philosophica signed by Lotario Sarsi but in fact written by Orazio Grassi. From the formal (i.e. rhetorical) point of view the  Assayer is an example of the judicial, defensive speech. However, in the book one can also see the presence of the epideictic speech. The epideictic speech praises the methodological values of the Copernican vision of the universe, and blames those involved in the Aristotelian and Ptolemaic approaches. In the Assayer there is a very famous rhetorical period - the ending with the proverbial aut Caesar aut nihil - in which the internal connection between both types of speeches can be analysed. The rhetorical exercise developed in the present essay tries to disentangle the complex node of these speeches in this fragment.
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Content available remote The Art of Rhetoric by Aristotle, a work for our time?
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Having discussed some political and philosophical stakes of the Greeks’ invention of the rhetorical art, the present research aims to show the great originality of Aristotle’s treatise in comparison to his precursors. Subsequently, the article illustrates the amazing scientific relevance of Aristotle’s work for the French -speaking world in the past half a century. Finally, the paper poses the question whether its underlying concepts can nowadays be of any significance from a practical point of view.
XX
Translation based on: I. Kalinin, The semiotic model of a historical process. History - between gramar and rhetoric, "Sign System Studies", 2003, vol. 31, no. 2. The article is devoted to the problem of the linguistic basis of the semiotic model of history, according to which history is described as a process of communication within social life.
PL
The Assayer of Galileo Galilei is a classic of Italian literature. This is not only because of its formal qualities - in fact The Assayer belongs to the most important current of Italian literature, which aims at drawing the map of what people know and what people do not know (I. Calvino). The Assayer was written in the context of the discussion on comets, and responds, paragraph by paragraph, to the Libra astronomica ac philosophica firmed by Lotario Sarsi (the pen-name of Orazio Grassi). Many authors have commented this book, so important for the methodology of modern science, and Galileo's rhetoric was always indicated as one of the most significant components of this 'opera'. From the formal (i.e. rhetorical) point of view The Assayer is an example of the judicial, defensive speech. Nevertheless, in the book one can notice the presence of the epideictic speech, to which belongs the famous tale/apologue of sound. In this essay a rhetorical and narratological analysis of the apologue in question is proposed. Different interpretations of the tale are discussed, and the special attention is paid to the argument attributed to the pope Urban VIII. The tale seems to be the founding narrative of the way in which the scientist confronts himself with the nature - the point which A. Banfi expressed in his conception of copernican model of man.
EN
The purpose of this article is to examine whether the work of Hermogenes can be useful in the analysis of the media. The Polish translation of the Byzantine textbook becomes an opportunity to reflect on the universality of the principles of creating persuasive messages. According to Hermogenes, rhetoric is the practical, civic skill of persuasion on important matters. Today, his ideas can be applied to television news. His textbook teaches us how to analyse the structure of television programmes, how to find – at a verbal and visual level – rhetorical figures.
EN
The article relates to the use of rhetoric in documentary film. Pathos is one of many ways of creating a persuasive documentary. According to Andrzej Fidyk, modern documentary film must be attractive to the viewer, otherwise, nobody will watch it. Hence the director decided to use persuasive elements in his film. Pathos is a tool for arousing strong feelings in the viewer. The source of those feelings is the presentation of power and concentration camps in the form of a musical extravaganza.
EN
The paper discusses the rhetorical and literary concept of the sublime (tὸ u`qov) and its development in the theory and practice of the ancient Greeks and Romans. Special emphasis is put on pseudo-Longinus' treatise De sublimitate and its understanding of the concept of the sublime.
EN
The jitters as a fear of public speach is spreading over many people – including the preachers. This article is based mainly on the rhetoric and homiletic publications of German author Albert Damblon. The problem of the jitters isn’t noted in the contemporary Polish homiletics. The author of the article has talked over the term, signs and reasons causing that the jitters occurs – and then has presented different ways to counteract it. The preacher should accept this form of anxiety and use it in a creative way. The main way to counter the effects of jitters is the careful preparation of homily, sermon, conference. Very important is also the spiritual preparation that includes prayer and meditation. The jitters has also its theological dimension. So turning to the hearers with true love and carying about their spiritual welfare the preacher will draw the light and power from Divine Spirit – allowing him to improve the Divine Word ministry and overcome the jitters.
EN
The article presents one of the types of rhetorical mechanisms used in political discourse – the question and answer method. The question and answer method is a rhetorical device in which the speaker asks a question and formulates his answer to it. The material for research is based on the official public texts of utterances made by contemporary Russian politicians: Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev, Vladimir Volfovich Zhirinovsky and Gennady Andreyevich Zyuganov. Definitions of the question-answering method are provided and the main functions of this phenomenon are given. The analysis shows that the question-answering method helps politicians to persuade society. It can be concluded that this rhetorical device serves to establish contact with the audience, to draw attention to information, to make the speeches of politicians dynamic, expressive and emotional. The most important thing, however, is that the question-answering method leads to the type of solution proposed by the politician that is desirable for the consideration of problems. The linguistic material has shown that this is an actively used method in the political discourse of contemporary Russia.
EN
The author of this article made an attempt to analyze the thematic material, as well as argumentative techniques in selected polemical papers by Piotr Skarga. She studied both the external, non-artistic evidence (e.g. the Bible, works of Church Fathers, Vatican Council Decrees) and the internal, artistic ones (i.e. enthymemes, topics, exempla). She demonstrated that the Holy Bible was for the preacher Sigismund III Vasa the greatest authority used for the reinforcement of his own argumentation. It was proved that apart from using factual evidence, Skarga would enrich his works with emotional content. For this purpose, he used mostly amplification, which for the Jesuit was at the same time one of the main tools of persuasion.
EN
The aim of this paper is to discuss selected rhetorical strategies applied by journalists during television interviews, as well as to consider whether they demonstrate the professional skills of journalists, or if they should be treated as examples of violating journalistic ethics and standards. The following three interviews have been analyzed in this paper: of Tomasz Lis (with Lech Wałęsa), Monika Olejnik (with Jacek Kurski) and Jacek Żakowski (with Leszek Miller). The author presents the rhetorical strategies used by the journalists and concludes that – as strategies involving the prevention of interlocutors from speaking and presenting their views, misinterpretation of information and journalists’ malevolence – they should be considered incompatible with the ethics of journalism.
EN
Effective presentation is a skill wanted by many. This competence is of great relevance for scientific lectures and can be transferred to other speech situations such as student seminar papers or oral presentations. How to achieve the intended speech effects and how to act rhetorically competently is often explained in the scientific literature. However, this monograph is also devoted to the unintended effects of speech, taking into account their causes.
15
Content available The Refutation of Gorgias: Notes on a Contradiction
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EN
This paper claims that Socrates’ refutation of Gorgias in the eponymous dialogue is designed not to find out the truth about the nature of the art of rhetoric itself but to refute the master of rhetoric himself. I try to justify this claim by displaying some major contradictions between the conclusions reached at with Gorgias and those reached at with Polus. When these contradictions are taken into account, the discussion with Polus is to be seen as reflecting the genuine Socratic position about rhetoric, whereas the discussion with Gorgias seems only to be devised as a dexterity in refutation.
EN
Isocrates, a political commentator, writer and teacher, was usually praised for his style and erudition, but hardly considered to be an original author. This opinion, however, seems to be a little unjust; Isocrates was perfectly able to use his profound knowledge of the Greek tradition in order to support his views, not always in a way one might have expected. In the way Isocrates refers to the well-known motifs and personalities one may discover an original approach. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate this technique with reference to Solon’ ethics and the person of Socrates.
PL
The article attempts to contribute to the discussion on the methods used in creating the world in the media, viewed from the rhetorical perspective. Implementations of the rhetorical principle of the adaptation of the utterance to the context and the situation of the audience to which exposition is directed (cf. K. Burke’s idea of identification and the so-called “identification” principle) are followed by both linguistic structuring of the utterance and the following argumentation may effect in the media content messages that are not only different but, frequently, create opposing images of the world. How far they may differ in their message is then shown with the example of the media reception of the death and the burial of Czesław Miłosz manifested in the presentations offered by two daily newspapers: Gazeta Wyborcza and Nasz Dziennik. The excerpted source material shows how the multitude of receivers designed to be reached by different mass media communication channels and diversity in taste and expectations of audiences makes it possible for journalists to create subjective interpretations of the world. Once created and tailored to the context of the audience, they function in parallel pathways and, should a clash between them ensue, the only outcome is that their rhetorical nature gets even more accentuated. With these circumstances given, what we experience then is a situation when different truths collide, while each of them surfaces within a given context of human conversation and each is validated by its respective audience to be reached and goals to be attained.
18
Content available W poszukiwaniu języka. O retoryce Partii Kobiet
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PL
To make the political presence of women more visible in modern public discourse it is necessary to work out a language that would represent them appropriately. An analysis of the rhetoric of the Women’s Party (Polish: Partia Kobiet), established in 2007, shows how this problem is handled by the officials of the party. The starting point for the discussion is the thesis that rhetoric discourse is initiated and shaped by a given rhetoric situation (as understood by L.F. Bitzer). In the analysed instance, it is determined by: 1) social and political circumstances surrounding the emergence of the party, no deep-rooted feminist tradition in particular; negativism in the approach towards women’s movements in general reflecting senses and moods dominating within society, marginalisation of women’s issues and women’s voices in mainstream political discourse, 2) historical conditioning and culturally dominant position of the male model of discourse in public address, 3) the attempt to get involved in the discourse as wide audience as possible, coupled with the belief that the sense of unity is to be based on the gender identity. The analysis of the texts available on the web page of the party, viewed as being fully of representative nature for the party, shows that the rhetoric of the Women’s Party is not heterogeneous. It oscillates between the rhetoric of co-operation (through the agency of which the party looks for tools instrumental for achieving some kind of agreement and dialogue in the public debate) and the rhetoric of hatred, already well-established in Polish political discourse (which undermines the formerly mentioned conciliatory attitude in dialogue and co-operation). As a result, a type of a communication ensues that is not free from paradoxes and one that makes a creation of a coherent and consistent message impossible, and therefore hinders a creation of a credible image of the party.
19
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EN
This article is focused on the role of the media in the process of building the culture of fear. It answers the question of how many potentially terrifying news pieces were presented on TV between 12 September and 14 November 2011. The article offers a theoretical review as well as results of analysis based on information from two Polish news shows: “Fakty” (TVN) and “Wiadomości” (TVP1). The analysis covers the quantity and timing of news as well as their topic, source and symbols of fear. Some of those symbols are analysed more broadly because of their importance for social life.
DE
Der Artikel konzentriert sich auf die Rolle der Massenmedien im Prozess der Angsterzeugung. Es wird die Frage gestellt, wie viele Informationen, die zur Erzeugung von Angst beitragen könnten, im Zeitraum von 12.09.2011 bis zum 14.11.2011 in den TV-Nachrichten ausgesendet wurden. Der Beitrag umfasst sowohl einen theoretischen Teil als auch die Ergebnisse einer Analyse von „Fakty“ (TVN) und von „Wiadomości“ (TVP1). Der Analyse werden die Anzahl sowie die Sendezeit der Informationen sowie die Thematik, Quelle und Angstsymbolik unterzogen. Dabei werden insbesondere ausgewählte Angstsymbole besprochen, weil ihnen eine wichtige Bedeutung für das gesellschaftliche Leben zukommt.
PL
Niniejszy artykuł skupia się na roli mediów w procesie budowania kultury strachu. Jego celem jest odpowiedź na pytanie, ile treści mogących budzić lęk pojawiło się w telewizyjnych dziennikach informacyjnych między 12.09.2011 a 14.11.2011. Obejmuje on zarówno przegląd teoretyczny, jak również wyniki analiz informacji zaprezentowanych w „Faktach” (TVN) i „Wiadomościach” (TVP1). Analizuję ilość i czas informacji, oraz ich tematykę, źródło i symbolikę lęków. Wybrane symbole zostały omówione szerzej ze względu na ich istotne znaczenie dla życia społecznego.
EN
The aim of the article is to describe the development of the study of rhetoric — “the theory of the text and the science of reasoning on uncertain premises” — from the time of Richard E. Volkmann’s Die Rhetorik der Griechen und Römer in systematischer Übersicht dargestellt, Leipzig 1885 [repr. Olms, Hildesheim 1963, 1987; repr. [elibron] 2005; repr BiblioBazaar 2010] to this day. The author seeks to recognize trends in the study of rhetoric, starting with the tradition of classical philology including word processing, as well as their interpretation, the formation of such trends as rhetorical criticism, nouvelle rhetorique of Chaim Perelman, Kenneth Burke’s school or comparative and contrastive approach. A separate place takes here an attempt at a synthesis by Heinrich Lausberg, Thomas Sloane, Walter Jost and Wandy Olmsted and the authors from the circle of the Historisches Woerterbuch der Rhetorik.The problem in today’s research on rhetoric, on the one hand, the emergence of it in various research fields, such as architecture, sociology, psychology, political science, on the other hand — increases difficulties in determining the scope of rhetoric on the one hand, and such learning, communication, and linguistics on the other. We should also note that rhetoric today is commonly confused with oratory, style, and even considered a science of only historical values, as a variety of historical poetics.However, it should be stressed that rhetoric, in different ways in different countries, has always been and still is present as the foundation of the school, academic education as well as in various courses such as improving writing skills and public speaking. At the same time, programs such as WAC (Writing Across the Curriculum) or WID (Writing in the Disciplines) realize that rhetoric is the condition sine qua non of their existence. At the end the author puts forward the thesis that trial, story, any field of knowledge can usually be still an open book, to which each new generation adds, at least, weighty contributions, which is not especially new. However, we are not always aware of the fact that new discoveries can affect our perception and understanding of not only learning the subject, but also its place within other disciplines. Sometimes — the consequences that bring with it a change in the current perception of specific knowledge. As regards the terms of rhetoric — the matter may have quite serious consequences — not only for this study. Finally, one of the most prominent scholars of today, Wayne C. Booth, is presented and part of his latest book entitled, The Need for Rhetorical Studies Today. In the conclusion the author argues that rhetoric, as Richard E. Volkmann wanted is analogous to logic, and, as suggested by Michael Billig, it is “the traditional study and practice of argumentation, provides an entry to an understanding of thinking.”
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