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Talking is preceded by planning the thought to be conveyed on the one hand, and by assigning a grammatically, phonologically, phonetically, and pragmatically appropriate actual linguistic form to it on the other. Speech planning processes normally take place in parallel, so much so that the speaker is unaware of the individual operations. However, occasional disharmony may arise in them, leading to various types of disfluency that disrupt the natural flow of spontaneous speech. - A self-monitoring mechanism of the speech production process is available during speaking, ready to recognize and repair any faulty messages that may occur. Overt monitoring is responsible for corrections that are observable in speech production. Covert monitoring, on the other hand, takes place at the various levels of speech planning. Temporal patterns in speech help us in locating disfluencies, as well as sites of overt or covert error detection, with high probability. The length of pauses preceding corrections has a predictive function. - This paper surveys some relevant models and then demonstrates the operation of self-monitoring via an analysis of Hungarian data
Content available remote Modely řečové produkce v současné psycholingvistice
The purpose of this article is to introduce three psycholinguistic models of speech production: the Levelt Model, the Interactive Activation Model of G. Dell and the Independent Network Model of A. Caramazza. The architecture of the models and the processes they assume are described and compared. The models differ both in the data on which their authors base their claims, and also in some crucial assumptions like succession of activation of the three basic networks of speech production (semantic, grammatical and phonological), the mechanisms of selection of the individual units within these networks and the presence or absence of feedback between them, etc.
The process of speech comprehension consists of two large phases: the perception of vocal phenomena corresponding to the system of linguistic signs, and the interpretation of that code system. Both phases are made up by several levels that collectively ensure the decoding of speech phenomena in a regular cooperation with one another. Speech comprehension is an active process whereby the hearer interprets the speech phenomena s/he has perceived at successively higher levels. For that process to work, certain mental representations must be shared by speaker and hearer. The notion 'mental representation' can be understood in various ways; it includes thoughts, ideas, wishes, percepts, conceptions, etc. Specifically 'linguistic' mental representations, on the other hand, are such that they contain linguistically relevant signs and functions of the individual's patterns of knowledge. Certain portions of linguistic mental representations may keep changing or being modified throughout the individual's lifetime. The present paper analyses, in several series of experiments, cases in which objective acoustic phonetic parameters seem to contradict the corresponding mental representations. The aim is to highlight the relationship between articulatory/acoustic differences and the invariant features that underlie them as well as that between mental representations and objective parameters. Four areas are investigated with respect to Hungarian: (a) the production, acoustic patterns, and perception of vowels; (b) the variants of the phoneme /h/; (c) the coarticulatory behaviour of (r); and (d) a phonological rule of coarticulation applying in spontaneous speech. On the basis of the results obtained, the author attempts to answer the question of how the (apparent) paradox of the contradiction between the objective physical reality of speech and its mental representation might be resolved.
The use of the lexical item ize 'um' is sometimes thought of as revealing sloppiness of speech and therefore to be avoided. The present paper aims at clarifying the status of ize and of two similar items, hogyhivjak 'whatchamacallit' and hogymondjam 'how shall I say', with the help of methods of dicourse analysis. The results are accounted for in the framework of Levelt's (1989) model of speech production, due to the fact that such lexical fillers are used for initiating various repairs of speech production errors that are hard-to-avoid concomitants of spontaneous (informal) discourse. The study shows that ize is available for overcoming a number of various types of speech planning errors and that hogyhivjak (whose functions overlap with those of ize) and hogymondjam are used for quite different types of errors, hence they are far from being as similar as they are often thought to be.
Children's speech perception strategies, together with speech production, start developing from the very beginning of language acquisition. In the case of children exhibiting usual (normal) qualitative and quantitative changes, no dissociation is assumed between speaking and speech processing. However, observational data show that children's speech production may go on working properly for quite some time even if there is some hidden impairment in their speech processing abilities. This usually leads to learning difficulties and restricted cognitive operations. Little is known, furthermore, about the expected age-bound working of speech processing performance or indeed about the line of development and its characteristics. In a series of experiments, the authors have sought answers to a number of questions: (i) What level do the speech perception and comprehension processes under scrutiny reach between ages 4 and 9? (ii) What interrelationships do they exhibit? (iii) Exactly how can the fact of development be pinpointed? Test results of a total of 600 children (altogether over fifty thousand data) have been analysed with respect to speech perception and speech comprehension processes. The results have confirmed a particular cooperation among the individual perceptual processes: development can be accounted for in terms of a decrease of interconnections among various types of processing. The older the child is, the more pronounced the mutual independence of perceptual processes is, and that is what underlies the proper functioning of the whole mechanism.
Speech production involves a series of processes that operate covertly and cannot be directly accessed. Only their output, speech itself, can be analysed. The collection and investigation of instances of disfluency is an important area of psycholinguistic research since such disharmonic phenomena may yield information concerning the operations that take place in the background: getting to know the causes and courses of speakers committing errors brings us closer to understanding the characteristics of normal processes. In the present study, the authors analyse 1760 segmental-level errors (379 perseverations, 594 anticipations, 401 metatheses, and 386 simple slips of the tongue) and try to find out which level of speech planning is responsible for faulty implementation is each case. What causes errors that can be explained in several different ways? Two assumptions are known. According to one of these, errors can be traced back to planning operations at the phonological level, that is, they precede phonetic planning that is then organised in terms of the faulty phonological pattern. In the other view, impeccable phonological operations are followed by defective phonetic planning that is responsible for the actual errors; in this case, then, we have to do with a simple articulatory implementation problem. The results of the present study confirm the view that segmental-level errors are committed in the phonetic, rather than phonological, planning process. This is connected to the fact that articulatory implementation is the most vulnerable phase of speech production. This may be due to the fact that the least amount of attention is devoted to articulation, this being the most automatic and most well-rehearsed part of the whole process. Further investigations are required to determine the kind of interaction that these operations maintain with the other levels of speech production planning while the individual disfluency phenomena come into being.
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