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1
Content available remote Hledání transcendence a autenticity v sekulárním věku
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EN
This review-study aims to present a critical exposition of the ground-breaking work in the study of secularisation, Charles Taylor's Secular Age. The study points to the links with Taylor's preceding work, Sources of the Self, which consist above all in the contrast between the porous self and the buffered self. It also presents Taylor's conception of secularisation: secularisation is not the retreat of religion from the public sphere, but the widening of the social process that makes it impossible for one world-view to make claim to a privileged status. The study also focuses on Taylor's rejection of modernity which, in the shape of a scientistic world-view and a universalistic morality understood as the hegemony of exclusively-human categories. In the context of this rejection, the article discusses Taylor's attempt to weaken the "hegemony of the human" by a relation to transcendence.
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Content available Ne-uzavření konkordátu mezi ČR a Svatým stolcem
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EN
The thesis presents the issue of the possibility of not closing the concordat between the Czech Republic and the Holy See from the historical and present point of view. It shows the development of international relations between the Czech Republic and the Holy See in terms of efforts to conclude an international treaty (and previous treaties) the socalled Concordat, which faithfully replicate the entire development of relations between the two subjects of international law. It shows the issue of the Austrian Concordat of 1855, the Concordat Modus vivendi Treaty of 1928, the draft of the new Concordat of 2002 and the secret negotiations on the new Concordat of 2014. Further efforts to self-determine clerics and believers in the Czech Republic by concluding a new international treaty can be expected. The possible conclusion of the new wording will thus be based on the current political situation and the majority consensus, perhaps, for example, as defining against Islamization in the sense of non-indigenous cultures rather than threats of terrorism. Given the current state of secularization, it can be stated that the new Concordat is not necessarily necessary at the moment, and its closure and ratification is not the order of the day.
EN
The chief motivation for undertaking this research comes from my encounter with Charles Taylor’s excellent work, “A Secular Age,” in which he not only analyzes the various historical manifestations of secularization in Western civilization, but also—and above all—tries to identify the newly emerging conditions in which forms of religious belief may develop on the threshold of the new millennium, in the context of what he himself describes as a secular age. My paper chiefly focuses on the fact that the routes leading to, and attempts to bring about, a revival of Christian spirituality in the modern world, which Taylor describes in his book, were already a concern for many philosophers working at the start of the 20th century. One amongst these, the Austrian thinker Ferdinand Ebner, occupies a special position. Known to the philosophical world as one of the originators of dialogical thinking, Ebner uncovers the real key to the revitalization and consolidation of Christian spirituality in the form of the reality of the spoken word. First and foremost, his philosophy of the word constitutes a spectacular example of the intensive search for meaning in life: something not always easy for human beings in a secular age to discover and define for themselves. In this paper I also aim to present the basis for Ebner’s assertion of an inseparable link between the word and religious faith, and to show how this relationship founds a possibility for the renewal of Christian spirituality in the modern world.
EN
This article depicts issues related to the functioning of religiously mixed marriages. These marriages are embodied in the multicultural landscape of Podlasie, which is inhabited by people of different religious traditions. The diversity of our region causes that many people decide to marry a person belonging to other denominations: for example, one spouse belongs to the Orthodox Church whereas the other one – to the Roman Catholic Church. Religious diversity, which is often applied to the diversity of a nation, entails bicultural nature of the relationship. This makes spouses adopt such attitudes that will facilitate their functioning. It is necessary entails in this type of a marriage a thorny issue may be the place of baptism of a child, double celebration of holidays or dilemmas related to a potential change of a religion. It can be assumed that the religious aspect plays a very important role. Nevertheless, we must also take into account secularizing trends developing in the society and their impact on the functioning of religiously mixed marriages in the form of marginalization of a religious factor.
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Content available remote Kilka uwag o możliwości sacrum w sztuce współczesnej
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This article consists of three parts. The first two parts have been devoted to two breakthroughs, in other words, to changes the paradigm of thinking about art, which constitutes the framework for transformations determining contemporary reality of art. The first one is the moment when “the era of art” started after “the era of the image” lasting until the modern times. Renaissance humanism led to the transformation of images being objects of religious worship into works of art. In the second part some of the problems of mutual relations between art and religion in more recent times, called by Arthur Danto the era “after the end of art”, have been indicated. The“strange” situation in which the art arising from religious inspiration is now might be considered the culmination of eighteenthcentury crisis Grand Theory of Art and at the same time the result of the process of secularization understood as the gradual disappearance of religious beliefs and practices in the modern world – sincere religious art has no place in the art world. At the end of the paper some of the theses which are in opposition to the trend of exclusion of religion from the public space, and thus from the world of art, have been discussed.
EN
In the following article author presents the theoretical assumptions of the concept of creative life orientation, the specificity of creative life orientation, and the theoretical assumptions of the concept of holistic intercultural education. This article presents the collaborative areas of both concepts: ontological assumptions in philosophy of dialogue, metaphysics of orientation, human pedagogy and empirical research as exemplification of these concepts. Openness to Another, dialogue with Him and creative understanding of Another are very important in the concept of creative life orientation and in the concept of holistic intercultural education.
PL
The Author of the article assumes that the charisma of John Paul II – at least in the symbolic sphere – has impeded intensifying trends in Polish society toward moral permissivism and relativism in everyday life. In Polish society, the image of John Paul II remains not only as a moral authority and a model, but above all, he is seen as a person who throughout his whole life proved his worth as someone important to the core of Polish society. As an authority linked to the sacred sphere, he was, at the same time very human. Even among those who believe that in Polish society there are essentially no authorities left to look up to, one can find many people who are still inclined to recognize the Polish Pope as a significant moral authority. There is no doubt that John Paul II had a positive influence on the religiosity and general image of the Church in Poland, even though it is somehow difficult to measure that empirically. Experiences related to the Pope’s illness, and later, to his death had a significant impact on many Poles from throughout society. One can question whether Polish Catholicism with its folk and mass nature will retain its prevailing character, now when Pope John Paul II is gone. Even if the impact of John Paul II on Polish moral and religious awareness will be decreasing, it still will be important and significant for some period of time. The strong impact of this exemplary Polish Pope is also going to slow down the secularization process of Polish society. All sociological data indicate that the influence of John Paul II on religiosity in his homeland will last for years to come, and hence, Poland will probably remain as a “specific case” in Europe with regards to the role religion plays in society.
EN
This article explores the causes and shifts of the ever-growing secularization in the modern world. It also examins and the idea that Christ can be discovered without the Church as well as, how the faith of the Church can be explored, experienced, and understood in relation to God.
9
Content available Secularization and Liberty
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PL
 REASERCH OBJECTIVE: The aim of the article is showing the idea of liberty as inherent in the process of secularization, from which it results; the author ap­peals to the anthropological thesis drawing its significance from the relational character of the human being as created by God and shows how the seculariza­tion destroys this idea of the human person. THE REASERCH PROBLEM AND METHODS: What happens when the liberty is understood as liberation and autonomy towards to God and finally causes result contradictory to the intended one? The author applies the hermeneutic and critical method, referring to the dif­ferent authors, for example to Henri de Lubac, Romano Guardini, J. Ratzinger, saint John Paul II. THE PROCESS OF ARGUMENTATION: The article analysis the problem of the contradiction between liberty and liberation in Catholic thought. The main item in this argumentation is that the liberty should not be understood as liberation towards to God because of the destructive effects of the secularization process in the Catholic doctrine and Church.  REASERCH RESULTS: The liberty understood as an absolute and liberation breaking with the Creator degenerates finally into artifice devoid of rational fundament, in short, of real contents; it is like human epiphenomenon. The new humanism brings the negation and destruction of the human being recognizing his humanity and maturity by breaking with God. CONCLUSIONS, INNOVATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Modernity is the source and the root of the secularization. The idea of liberty devoid of fundament in the human being and the person of God complicates seriously the human coexistence and social life, as admitted once Habermas.
EN
The argument that modernization and secularization are linked in some non-accidental and nontautological manner is sometimes rebutted with the assertion that the statistical evidence of decline in indices of interest in religion in the UK and elsewhere in the modern world is a mere trend that may be changed by a revival of interest in religion. This essay considers the obstacles to such a revival. It makes the case that ‘late secularization’ differs in three important ways from ‘early secularization’. The shared stock of religious knowledge is small, the public reputation of religion is poor, and religion is carried primarily by populations that are unusual in being drawn either from a narrow demographic or from immigrant peoples. Given the role of affective social bonds in religious conversion, the alien nature of the carriers of religion makes religious revival extremely unlikely.
11
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In this paper we do point out in the first place what is social modernization, and then we talk about the relations of social modernization and religiosity: a) the notion of social modernization, b) social modernization and secularization, c) social modernization and desecularization, d) socio-cultural pluralism and religion. Social modernization doesn’t have to therefore to lead into more and more efficient removal of religion from the public sphere, until it will be absolutely eradicated. Until recently, it was assumed in sociology that there’s a correlation between social modernization and religiosity; mostly unilateral: the more modernization we have the less religiosty there is and the more a society is modernized the more secular it is. Today, more often we speak of many variants of modernization and only few of them are inevitably related to modernity and social modernization (secularization is taken here as an intergral part of modernization).
EN
The changes taking place in our times in the religious sphere can be simply presented as occurring between secularization and desecularization. The former trend is especially visible in Western Europe, where it is characteristically and clearly making its presence felt, thus becoming a specific emblem on the religious map of the world. The latter tendency also appears in the Old Continent, but on a much smaller scale and with limited impact. In this article religiousness among young people in chosen European countries will be demonstrated, as well as an attempt will be made to answer the question whether and to what extent the religious changes occur in these societies. Furthermore, there will be an attempt made to define whether they form part of either the secularizational or desecularizational trends. The data of the European Social Survey from Round 1 (2002) and Round 2 (2016) will provide the basis for the analyses, which will make it possible to show the appearing religious changes and the directions of their transformations in the course of almost one and a half decade.
13
Content available remote Youth – religion – the church in a sociological perspective. Continuations
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PL
The inspiration to pursue a research topic or to contribute to the research of other scientists often comes from a single remark, thought or sentence. ‘Continuations’ in the heading suggests that this, too, is the case of this paper. It presents early results of a research project undertaken in 2017 to examine the religiousness of high school and academic youth inhabiting different social environments and coming from different regions of Poland (the Silesian, St Cross and Lesser Poland voivodeships). Research of this kind is undertaken relatively often, and usually focuses on similar topics; was it thus necessary to add yet another new project? The inspiration behind it comes from the findings of Fr. Janusz Mariański, an expert on the religiousness of Poles, which he described in numerous publications and in particular in the latest one: Religious activity of Poles in regression, a paper which forms part of the Anniversary Publication of Prof. Andrzej Wójtowicz. In the paper, J. Mariański summarises the results of multiannual sociological research of the topic. His central thesis points to a slow but consistent diminishing – regression – of Poles’ religious activity in the past decade. Whilst it is still possible to talk about a specific uniqueness of Polish religiosity, it does not mean that it will remain so unique in the future.
14
Content available Postsekularyzm – mikro- czy megatrend?
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In my article I would like to look at the phenomenon of post-secularism from the point of view of sociological research of social trends. I generally understand post-secularism as a return to religious values and religious thinking in various areas and levels of social life. I would therefore like to ask whether post-secularism can be said to be one of the contemporary trends, and if so, what would be its characteristics and whether it can be described as a micro- or megatrend. After all, both leading microtrend researcher Mark J. Penn considered as microtrends some examples of religious revival in the USA, but also a classic reflection on megatrends John Naisbitt claimed that one of the megatrends today is the growing interest in religion.
EN
Modernity in the West had, among other things, the effect of encouraging people to distance themselves, especially from the more cultivated classes, from ecclesiastical structures, at first, and then from the Christian religion itself. This distancing had incidence on individualism, which also led to a modern vision of man and society. This paper discusses the main philosophical, political and cultural motives that directly influenced, especially after the French Revolution, the accelerated process of secularization. This process led to the skeptical and post-metaphysical attitude of the post-modernity of the 20th century. Unlike previous ones, it was a century in which atheism was not an attitude of few individuals among the intellectuals but it spread also to large groups of citizens. However, since the last two decades of the 20th century and the first decades of the 21st, some changes can be perceived that could indicate a return of interest towards religion in the West. 
XX
In this article, I analyze how the relationship between national identity and religion was reconfigured by social actors during the Quebec’s so-called Quiet Revolution, and discuss how the secularization of society that took place in the 1960s and 1970s shapes contemporary politics in Quebec. With the building of its welfare state in the 1960s, national identity and religion in Quebec have become divorced institutionally, ideologically, and symbolically. Quebec has also undergone one of the most rapid processes of secularization in the Western world during that decade. In this text I trace the evolution and transformation of the relationship between national and religious identities in Quebec through an analysis of symbolic politics, and discuss how some of the ambiguities and unintended consequences of the Quiet Revolution are at the root of current debates about the place of religion in the public sphere.
EN
The article analyzes the problem of studies of Russian literature in the context of post-Renaissance processes in world, especially in Europe. The Enlightenment program was aimed at undermining the earlier culture and the construction of a new type of culture, in which the centre of attention was the experience of individuals not corrupted by civilization and Christian morality. The apogee of this cult of the creative «I» lies in the romanticism of his titanic «rebellion» against God. But Russian literature, as well as other Eastern Slavic literature, is based on the Christian books, which were its original sources. The secularization of culture after Peter I was aimed to destroy this base. However it was preserved and eventually evolved into the idea of communist totalitarianism. Therefore, the realization of the Enlightenment project – the creation of popular culture in Russia was particularly devastating. Russian classic output stems from the Christian tradition. It should be recognized that the artistic word cannot properly «educate», which is the function of didactic or sacred books.
EN
The Czech Republic is often said to be one of the most secular countries in Europe, or even in the world. For this, in accord with the secularization thesis, the modernization is often mentioned, where it was supposed that it automatically leads to the decline of religion in society. In my paper, I recapitulate the basic points of the secularization thesis and dissect its criticism which seems to be aimed at the idea, that secularization represents just an unintended effect of modernization. Based on this criticism, I deduce resources for analysis of the religious situation in the Czech Republic. Furthermore, I prove that Czech society is not so much atheist, but more dechristianized, and I focus on reasons of this dechristianization in political, social and class conflicts, which had, according to my opinion, a great impact on Czech church’s religionism. In this paper, I address the conflicts between socialist movement and the Catholic Church, which as a result had a substantial effect on the dechristianization of the czech working class.
EN
Religion is a powerful phenomenon arising in and from society. Various efforts have been done to understand religion as a natural phenomenon, which could be framed in the language of science. In this paper, I forward a sui generis approach to the naturality of religion, where religion is explained as one of the next stages in broader natural processes of self-organization. Furthermore, having framed like this the naturality of the religious experience, the paper explores the contemporary debate of current religious expressions. It is suggested that the arrival of science and the modern society have changed some expressions of religious experiences; while, nonetheless, keeping their capacity to self-organize societies. The magical realist society, as the society capable of disguising the magic of religion within the realism of the scientific ethos, is presented and discussed as a modern secular expression of religion, capable to cope with the challenges of science through the dynamics of modernity and capitalism.
EN
The paper analyses categories of every-day reality and of a life-world, reaching also for a related notion of intersubjectivity. Whereas all of them have phenomenological background, only the category of every-day reality has made a career in sociology, breaking offthe connection with its philosophical roots. Its phenomenological interpretations are recurred to in the article, together with showing its relation to Lebenswelt. The main concern is the extent to which it is possible to find religious meanings in every-day life in contemporary societies of the broadly-understood West. A degree to which it is allowed to bring meanings deriving from other spheres into the scope of every-day reality, as well as a concrete symbolic domain to be privileged, are historically and culturally changeable. Secularization that affects a society in an institutional dimension and its common sense, makes religious interpretations being less and less intersubjectively supported and loosing their status of being taken for granted. This situation encourages further secularization of individual life-worlds, and at persons who still identify themselves as religious strengthens the separation of religious province from the other domains of meanings and ways of experiencing the world. There is also a number of people who, despite the decline of presence of religious elements in widely shared common sense, perceive their lives through the prism of religious interpretations, and try to shape their own every-day life in this perspective. A remedy to the evanescence of confirmation in every-day communication are smaller communities clustered around shared meanings, as well as a stronger emphasising an experiential aspect. In the circumstances of the multitude of potentially internalizeable interpretative systems, differentiation of world-views and attitudes to the religious stuff, and lesser presence of religious meanings beyond religious institutions, the life-world category, meant as an individual representation of reality and a frame for experiences, can become an adequate tool of studying.
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