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EN
The writings of Martin Rakovsky can be seen as a reflection of the problems, including political ones, of his time. His aim was also to offer an idea of a perfect ruler, who would bring peoples the peace and calm down the stormy events of the 16th century. The personal virtues of such a ruler should have been the guarantee of the welfare of all citizens. Given Rakovsky's religious attitude he can be regarded as a re-formation humanist standing between Machiavelli and Luther.
2
Content available remote KRESŤANSTVO A MORÁLKA V STREDOEURÓPSKEJ POLITIKE 9. STOROČIA
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EN
The author of this article researches the process of the Christianization of Central Europe from the point of view of inconsistence of theoretical scopes contained within the opinions of ideologists of the Christian empire at the court of Charlemagne and the real process of Christianization. Charlemagne’s ideologists emphasized the significant role of morality, its values and norms within the propagation and acceptance of the Christian faith. However, the real form of Christianization covered firstly the acquirement and the maintenance of military, political, economic and social power of the Kingdom of the Franks over Christianized and subjugated countries and ethnicities. The author points out in this regard the ambivalence of the whole process of Christianization at the level of foreign and even domestic politics of this particular period of time, which indeed has far-reaching historical consequences.
3
Content available Martha Nussbaum’s Humanism and Posthumanism
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EN
Author focuses on Nussbaum’s theory of human development and especially her capabilities approach (CA). The approach includes the basic human capabilities establishing fundamentals of the human development. The core values of the CA are human dignity and freedom, however, a very important part of the approach are also our relations to animals, plants, and nature. According to Nussbaum, it is necessary to keep in mind that dignity does not concern only human beings, but also animals. For this reason, she argues for plurality of forms of life as well as plurality of dignities. Nussbaum affirms that we have a duty to establish possibilities for positive development of any rational animals including non-human animals.
PL
Autorka skupia się na teorii rozwoju człowieka Marty Nussbaum, a zwłaszcza na podejściu do zdolności (PZ). Podejście to obejmuje podstawowe zdolności ludzkie, ustanawiające podstawy rozwoju człowieka. Podstawowymi wartościami PZ są godność człowieka i wolność, jednak bardzo ważną częścią tego podejścia są również nasze relacje ze zwierzętami, roślinami i przyrodą. Według Nussbaum należy pamiętać, że godność dotyczy nie tylko ludzi, ale także zwierząt. Z tego powodu opowiada się ona za mnogością form życia, jak również wielością godności. Nussbaum potwierdza, że mamy obowiązek stworzyć możliwości pozytywnego rozwoju wszelkich racjonalnych zwierząt, w tym zwierząt innych niż ludzie.
RU
Автор сосредотачивается на теории человеческого развития Марты Нуссбаум и особенно его подходе к возможностям (ПВ). Подход включает в себя основные человеческие возможности, устанавливающие основы человеческого развития. Основными ценностями ПВ являются человеческое достоинство и свобода, однако очень важной частью подхода являются также наши отношения с животными, растениями и природой. По словам Нуссбаума, необходимо помнить, что достоинство касается не только людей, но и животных. По этой причине она выступает за множественность форм жизни, а также за множественность достоинств. Нуссбаум подтверждает, что мы обязаны создать возможности для позитивного развития любых рациональных животных, в том числе животных, не являющихся людьми.
EN
The paper offers an analysis of Martin Razus' work 'Argumenty' (Arguments, 1932) and its place in the history of philosophy and ethics in the first half of the 20th century in Slovakia. Razus deals with three basic forms of life: (a) its biological-anthropological form, which is a presupposition and basis of the other two forms: (b) life in the form of a family life; (c) on the top of the development there is the life in the form of a nation or national life. All three forms are penetrated by morality and namely by humanity. Attention is paid also to some ways of understanding life shared by B. Spinoza, E. Fromm and M. Razus.
EN
In his Education of a Christian Prince (1516) Erasmus applies ancient and Christian virtues to the functions of a Christian prince. Slovak humanist writer Jan Milochovsky (1630 - 1684), who expanded new Erasmus's work in his Ornamentum Magistratus Politici (1678) the scope of the ethical and moral functions of a prince, focusing on three fundamental virtues: piety, justice and tolerance. The paper offers an analysis of Erasmus's political ethics and examines the later impact on the Slovak humanism of the second half of the 17th century, especially in the writings of Jan Milochovsky.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2016
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tom 71
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nr 9
791 – 802
EN
The author examines the concept of the art of life on the background of taking care of the self and others. His conclusion is that for Mill there are two patterns of right life. In the 3rd edition of his System of Logic (1851) he gives a brief outline of the art of life, i.e. the symbiosis of the good, truth and beauty, which should help an individual to achieve happiness in her/his life. This idea of the art of life he later developed in his works On Liberty (1859) and Utilitarianism (1861). Especially in the first one he was concerned with fundamental attributes of taking care of the self and others in the context of practicing liberty. Liberty is the presupposition of the individual’s well-being and as such it contributes to utility which is the fundamental principle of ethics. Self-cultivation and perfection of individual’s morality make for Mill the fundament of the individual’s as well as humankind’s self-fulfilment. Taking care of the self includes the duty to care for the others, i.e. the obligation to contribute to their well-being.
7
Content available remote ETHNOS AND ETHOS: SLOVAK SLAVIC RECIPROCITY AND GREEK-CYPRIOT ENOSIS
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EN
The author studies similarities and differences in the development of the Slovak and Greek Cypriot national movements in 19th century. He pays main attention to the ideas of ‘Slavic reciprocity’ and ‘enosis’, as core factors of these 19th-century national movements. He came to the conclusion that, in spite of geographical distance and cultural dissimilarity, both ethnic groups and their respective national movements shared many features. He considers these national movements a manifestation of the universal ethos of modern times. The ethos of the Slovak as well as Greek-Cypriot national movements between the 19th century and the end of World War I primarily lay in the fight for man’s rights and freedoms, humanity, human dignity, and justice not only as individuals, but also members of their own ethnic group. This was an effort to pursue the right to a person’s freedom of decision-making in linguistic, cultural, and educational issues, without any external pressure, orders, or prohibitions from the political power. This was a pursuit of the original Enlightenment intention following liberalism which was, however, often deformed when presented by ruling nations and reflected the nationalist ideology and colonial policies towards small ethnic groups living in multi-ethnic empires.
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