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PL
Filmy Macieja Adamka: "Konkurs" (2002), "Życie przed Tobą" (2003), "Jestem" (2004) oraz "Gry i zabawy dziecięce" (2010) są bardzo wnikliwymi portretami dziecka i dzieciństwa nakręconymi bez poczucia dominacji dorosłego, angażującymi emocjonalnie, a jednocześnie stanowiącymi znakomity punkt wyjścia do refleksji nad społecznym światem dziecka. Adamek zmusza widza do skonfrontowania się z kulturowymi wyobrażeniami dzieciństwa jako okresu szczęścia i beztroski. W filmach tych znajdziemy też refleksję na temat przemian społecznych ideologii w odniesieniu do dziecka i jego potrzeb rozwojowych oraz konsumenckich, jak również potwierdzenie tezy, że dzieciństwo jest zjawiskiem społecznie konstruowanym.
EN
Films by Maciej Adamek such as: 'The Competition' (2002), 'Life to Live' (2003), 'I Am Here' (2004) and 'Kids Play' (2010) are very insightful portraits of children and childhood, made without a feel ing of an adult’s domination over the film. They are emotionally engaging, and at the same time, they offer an excellent starting point for reflection on the social world of children. Adamek forces the viewer to confront the cultural concept of childhood as a period full of happiness and innocence. In these films there is also a reflection on the social changes of ideologies related to children, their development and consumer needs, and a confirmation of the thesis that childhood is a socially constructed phenomenon.
PL
W artykule pojęcie i zjawisko kinofilii jest pretekstem do przyjęcia szczególnej perspektywy, a mianowicie założenia, że dziecko oglądające filmy także wykazuje się swego rodzaju miłością do kina. Koschany szuka przykładów we wspomnieniach reżyserów oraz ich autotematycznej i autobiograficznej twórczości, gdzie dziecko okazuje się wyjątkowym odbiorcą filmu – identyfikującym się z obrazem, wierzącym w przedstawioną rzeczywistość, nieuprzedzonym intelektualnie. Pojawiający się w omawianych filmach sentymentalizm (na przykład w "Kinie Paradiso") świadczy o tęsknocie dorosłego widza do takiego pierwotnego, czystego, niemalże cielesnego kontaktu ze sztuką.
EN
In this paper the concept and phenomenon of cinephilia is a pretext for adopting a particular perspective, namely the assumption that a child watching films also manifests a kind of love for the cinema. Koschany looks for examples in directors’ memoirs and in their self-reflexive, autobiographical work, in which the child turns out to be an exceptional viewer of the film – one that fully identifies itself with the image, wholeheartedly believes in the presented reality, and is totally unprejudiced intellectually. The sentimentality appearing in such films (for example in 'Nuovo cinema Paradiso') speaks of an adult viewer’s longing for such original and pure, and almost bodily contact with the art.
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System oświaty w Polsce przez cały okres powojennej historii poddawany była różnego rodzaju reformom i eksperymentom. Przeprowadzano zarówno reformy systemowe, jak i programowe. Jednakże dopiero rozpoczęta w 1989 roku reforma ustrojowa, która przywróciła instytucję samorządu terytorialnego jako podstawowej jednostki demokratycznego państwa, spowodowała odpolitycznienie oświaty i wprowadziła decentralizację zarządzania szkołami, placówkami oświatowymi, w tym przedszkolami. Po 1989 roku samorząd, a nie tylko administracja rządowa, przejął odpowiedzialność za poziom i stan oświaty. W ustawie o samorządzie terytorialnym1 z 8 marca 1990 roku w art. 7 ust. 1 pkt 8 zapisano, że do zadań własnych gminy należą zadania z zakresu oświaty, w tym zadania szkół podstawowych, przedszkoli i innych placówek oświatowych. W pierwszym okresie reformy gminy przejęły prowadzenie tylko przedszkoli. Szkoły podstawowe miały obligatoryjnie zostać przejęte przez samorządy w 1995 roku(fragment tekstu)
EN
The changes related to the political transformation which took place in our country also affected education and, consequently, preschool education. The state delegated the responsibility for the administration of public schools, kindergartens and other educational institutions to local authorities, which involved a certain limitation in terms of the availability of kindergartens in some regions. A decrease in the number of children attending such institutions was particularly observed in rural communes. Poland's accession to the European Union was a crucial factor stimulating dissemination and availability of preschool education. Local governments and other entities running kindergartens took advantage of the opportunity created by the European Social Fund. Nowadays, a wide variety of preschool education forms and institutions providing such education as well as educational offers can be observed. Nevertheless, there are still some areas which require support, and social debate on the effectiveness of preschool education is also needed. The way preschool establishments have come and the changes they have undergone over the past 25 years are particularly noteworthy. Starting from the period of neglect of infrastructure and the closure of preschool institutions, we have now entered the stage of clear understanding of the crucial role played by preschool education in further psychophysical development of a child and, at the same time, awareness of the need to invest both in physical and human capital of this important area of national education.(original abstract)
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Content available remote Multifocal osteoma of external auditory canal in a child. A case report
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EN
Osteomas of external auditory canal are most often unilateral, solitary, pedunculated hard tumors located on the anterior and superior wall of the structure in its distal part. They have to be distinguished from exostoses of external auditory meatus. Osteomas of external auditory canal are very rare and apart from isolated cases are not described in children population. The case presented in the paper shows the possibility of a presence of unilateral multifocal osteoma of an external auditory canal in a child, which is not described in the literature concerning the topic.
EN
Age is being evermore complained as an impediment to language competency, either given as a pretext or raised as a real challenge, taken for granted by foreign language learners. This study seeks to prod about the verb choices among EFL learners. In so doing, the two completely different radiuses of EFL learners, a group of university students in distance education, with part-time class participation and another from a private language institute in Qom province were recruited and compared on their choices of verbs in respect of single- and multi-word forms put into the written tasks. The results of the rating of the students' assignments showed that adult Iranian EFL learners' written language was deprived of phrasal verbs, even in informal writing assigned the use of informal language were scarcely captured. The study corroborates the former studies for the avoidance and incompetency of EFL learners in the use of phrasal verbs. (original abstract)
EN
The treatment of stuttering is one of the most complex and lengthy processes. There is no consensus regarding the causes and mechanisms underlying the development of stuttering. This disorder mainly occurs in children of preschool age, that is between the ages of 3 and 6. Many authors emphasise the vulnerability of the child's mental state. Individual cases exhibit a variety of clinical manifestations and different forms of personal response to the defect. For each child, it is necessary to create a personal therapy program based on modern scientific research, including neurophysiological, psychological and psycholinguistic. To ensure a high level of effectiveness, it is necessary to select an optimal program for individual correctional work with the child. (original abstract)
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Content available remote Selected risk factors of fractures in children - own observation
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EN
Bone fractures may depend on Vitamin D Receptor Gene (VDR), bone mineral density, bone turnover markers. Patients and methods. 161 patients were recruited and underwent: skeletal densitometry (DXA) method and bone turnover studies (Osteocalcin and Ntx).The study group was evaluated using restriction enzyme digestion at BsmI (rs1544410), FokI (rs2228570), ApaI (rs7975232) and TaqI (rs731236), polymorphic sites of the VDR gene. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess factor significance. The model included variables with sex- and age-standardized parameters, VDR genotypes, and bone metabolism marker levels. Results. Factors associated with fractures were: osteocalcin concentration and Z-score BMDt. Odds Ratio (OR) values equaled: 1.01 (95%Confidence Interval (95%CI) 1.00–1.02) for osteocalcin (p=0.006), and 0.66 (95%CI 0.42-1.03; p=0.07) for Z-score BMDt. In patients with reduced bone mass, factors related to fractures were: osteocalcin (0.04) and carriage of BsmI b (0.07) or ApaI a alleles (0.08). ORs were 1.01 (95%CI 1.00–1.02) for OC, 0.29 (95%CI 0.07–1.14) for BsmI, and 2.13 (95%CI 0.91–4.99) for ApaI polymorphic allele carriage. Conclusions. Carriage of BsmI b allele reduces, while carriage of ApaI a allele and heightened osteoclacin level increase the risk of fractures in study children with reduced bone mass. VDR polymorphism, bone mineral density and bone formation’s marker - osteocalcin maybe considered as risk factor for fracure in children from Lodz region.
EN
There is no consensus regarding the time of antiepileptic drug withdrawal and the relevant risk factors for seizure relapse. In this study, we aimed to determine the seizure relapse rates and the associated risk factors for seizure relapse in childhood epilepsy. Two-hundred sixty-six epileptic patients who discontinued the antiepileptic drug therapy after a seizure-free period of at least two years, were enrolled into the study. The data of the patients regarding sex, febrile convulsion history, family history, age at onset, type of epilepsy, total number of seizures and antiepileptic drugs, seizures during treatment, mental status, first and last electroencephalography, brain imaging findings, etiological factors and seizure relapse in the first two years after antiepileptic drug withdrawal were obtained from the patients’ files. Univariate logistic regression analysis was performed for each variable. The variables which were found to be statistically significant in univariate analysis, were included in multivariate logistic regression analysis. The overall seizure relapse rate after antiepileptic drug withdrawal was 19.2%. There were no significant differences for seizure relapse rate after antiepileptic drug withdrawal between patient groups with respect to sex, family history, type of epilepsy, febrile convulsion history, seizures before treatment, first electroencephalography findings, brain imaging findings and etiology. However, there were statistically significant differences for seizure relapse rate among patient groups concerning age at onset of epilepsy, new seizure during treatment, the total number of antiepileptic drugs, mental status, and last electroencephalography findings. We imply that the clinical status of the patients should be considered before the cessation of drug therapy rather than the etiological factors or laboratory findings.
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Celem artykułu jest pokazanie znaczenia instytucji wsparcia psychologicznego w życiu współczesnej rodziny w kontekście zjawiska osamotnienia dziecka w rodzinie. Instytucja ta stanowi przestrzeń w jej rzeczywistym znaczeniu, ale także - a może przede wszystkim - staje się w metaforycznym ujęciu przestrzenią odzwierciedlającą sposób funkcjonowania rodziny i relacji pomiędzy poszczególnymi jej członkami. W toku analizy i interpretacji materiału badawczego wyodrębnione zostały cztery kategorie samotności: kategoria fizycznego osamotnienia dziecka, osamotnienie dziecka poprzez zaprzeczanie rzeczywistości, osamotnienie dziecka poprzez niesłuchanie go i kategoria osamotnienia dziecka w przeżywaniu emocji. (abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
The aim of this paper is to show the importance of psychological institutions in the life of the modern family in the context of loneliness experienced by children in the family. This institution not only constitutes real physical space but also, in a metaphorical sense, it reflects the functioning of the family and the relations between its particular members. In the course of analysis and interpretation of the research data, we have identified four categories of loneliness: physical loneliness, loneliness resulting from a child's negation of reality, loneliness resulting from a child being ignored and loneliness resulting from a lack of support in experiencing emotions by a child. (original abstract)
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EN
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is the most common cause of acquired thrombocytopenia in children. In 20% of cases, this condition is classified as chronic when the thrombocytopenia is persistent 6 months after diagnosis. The aim of the present study is to identify the potential factors correlating with a favorable outcome in patients with chronic ITP. Some 71 patients affected by ITP were retrospectively analyzed. Results show a higher rate of spontaneous recovery that is statistically significant for patients with platelet count at diagnosis <20,000/µL. These observations suggest the possibility to delay or avoid aggressive surgical treatment for these patients.
11
Content available remote Wpływ masażu na rozwój psychofizyczny niemowląt - siła dotyku
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Pierwsze lata dziecka są kluczowe dla jego rozwoju, szczególnie ważny jest okres niemowlęcy. Do prawidłowego funkcjonowania mały człowiek potrzebuje dotyku, o którym mówi się ze jest "pokarmem" dla mózgu. Zmysł dotyku jest nam niezbędny do prawidłowego rozwoju fizycznego i psychicznego, stanowi także podstawowy element w zaspokojeniu potrzeby miłości i bezpieczeństwa u dziecka. Jedną z form dotyku jest masaż, który poza dostarczaniem wrażeń czuciowych wpływa na psychiczny, fizyczny i emocjonalny rozwój dziecka. W ostatnich latach coraz większym zainteresowaniem cieszy się masaż Shantala, który może być stosowany u dzieci zdrowych i z dysfunkcjami. (abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
The first years of the child life are very important for its development, especially infancy period. For proper functioning, a small person needs a touch that is said to be a "food" for the brain. The sense of touch is necessary for proper physical and mental development, it is also a basic element in satisfying the child's need for love and safety. One of the forms of touch is a massage that, apart from providing sensory impressions, affects the child's psychological, physical and emotional development. In recent years, Shantala massage, which can be used in healthy children and with dysfunctions, is becoming more and more popular. (original abstract)
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Content available remote Specyfika lecznictwa uzdrowiskowego dzieci w Polsce
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Leczenie uzdrowiskowe popularnie nazwane jest kuracją uzdrowiskową. W artykule scharakteryzowano specyficzny dział medycyny - lecznictwo uzdrowiskowe dla dzieci oraz wykorzystywane metody leczenia uzdrowiskowego. Kuracja uzdrowiskowa jest wielokierunkowa, jej podstawą jest balneoterapia, hydroterapia, klimatoterapia, kinezyterapia, fizykoterapia i masaż, a także dietetyka, farmakoterapia i psychoterapia. Proces ten wymaga zaangażowania różnorodnego personelu medycznego: lekarzy, pielęgniarek, dietetyka, psychologa oraz fizjoterapeutów. Zgodnie z obowiązującymi przepisami o systemie oświaty placówka uzdrowiskowa lecząca dzieci musi zapewnić im realizację obowiązku szkolnego. (abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
Spa treatment is commonly called spa treatment course. This paper characterises a specific sector of medicine science - spa treatment for children and the methods of spa treatment being used. Spa course treatment is diverse with its basic methods being balneotherapy, hydrotherapy, climatotherapy, kineziotherapy, physiotherapy and massage as well as dietetics, pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy. The process requires involvement of a wide range of health professionals like doctors, nurses, dieticians, psychologists and physiotherapists. According to binding legislation on education system, a health resort institution treating children is obliged to provide them with compulsory schooling on site. (original abstract)
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Study aim: To determine if pupil physical activity and Body Mass Index classifications maintained or improved after a one-year professional development program involving both classroom and physical education teachers. Guskey's model of teacher change guided this study.Material and methods: Indigenous children from ten schools (N = 320) in grades 3-12 from one community participated in this year-long comprehensive school change effort. Classroom (n = 31) and physical education teachers (n = 7) participated in this study as intervention (n = 27) or comparison (n = 11) teachers. Intervention teachers participated in a year-long professional development program to increase physical activity and healthy behaviour knowledge of pupils.Results: ANOVA results for pupil physical activity (measured using pedometry) indicated that both groups of pupils (intervention and comparison) became significantly more active over time. The intervention groups' behaviour was less stable (α = 0.71) over time versus the comparison group (α = 0.86), suggesting positive behaviour changes. No significant Body Mass Index changes were found.Conclusions: Although the intervention resulted in physical activity increases for both intervention and comparison pupils at the schools, change takes time and these initial findings show progress in increasing physical activity behaviours at school in an understudied and disadvantaged population of indigenous USA youth.
14
Content available remote Kynotheraphy as the Innovative form of Supporting Disabled Children
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EN
Kynotherapy is one of the innovatory methods of disabled children therapy - 'a dog-assisted therapy" generally speaking is a method helping and strengthening rehabilita-tions with a dog's participation which is properly selected, trained and led by a qualified therapist. In 1964,a child psychiatrist Boris Levinson noticed while observing autistic boys in contact with dogs that these animals had caused that autistic children having a communication problem in building up social contacts, established a contact with a dog without any trouble, and it gave a chance for a contact with a therapist in the future. For a working 'therapy dog' are selected and trained the representatives of breeds with mellow and good-tempered temperament, well-balanced psyche, patient, obedient and devoted to man. According to therapists an ideal dog in terms of character is one called a social dog, that is such a dog which except mentioned above features will be obedient not only towards people whom it knows well, but also towards every person it meets. A dog selected for work with disabled people has to be a completely foreseeable dog, that is the one which has encoded invariable features of character by his genes. Moreover, it is im-portant that the therapy dog would not have aggressive, apprehensive, or ill ancestors in his pedigree [Levinson, Pets, 1964]. The main effect of this kind of a contact therapy consists in the physical contact (strok-ing, cuddling up to a dog, shaking the dog's paw) and establishing psychical ties with the animal what has a positive influence over the course of the treatment. Despite many inconveniences kynotherapy gains more and more followers in rehabili-tation of disabled people. The changes that have occurred for last several years in this innovatory therapy allow to suppose that kynotherapy will be developing incessantly, and 'dog therapists' will be able to reach to more and more large number of people in need.(original abstract)
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Content available remote Koncept Snoezelen - MSE
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Badanie koncentruje się na koncepcji Snoezelen-MSE, definiuje i wyjaśnia terminy Snoezelen, Snoezelen - ISNA, Snoezelen - MSE. Badanie zajmuje się także stworzeniem koncepcji Snoezelen, ważnymi osobami związanymi z ta koncepcją i historią, która jest dość zagmatwana, przynajmniej jeśli chodzi o poszczególne źródła; koncentruje się przede wszystkim na celach i zasadach, metodach, koncepcji Snoezelen oraz podstawowych zasadach korzystania z niej. Badanie obejmuje również obszary, które wspierają koncepcję Snoezelen. Oraz przedstawia wielofunkcyjną salę Snoezelen pod względem wyposażenia i potrzeb przestrzennych. (abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
The study focuses on the Snoezelen-MSE concept, defines and clarifies the terms Snoezelen, Snoezelen - ISNA, Snoezelen - MSE. It also deals with the emergence of the Snoezelen concept, important personalities, and a history that is quite unequal, at least as far as individual sources are concerned. It primarily focuses on goals and principles, methods, the concept of Snoezelen, the basic principles of using the Snoezelen concept. This includes areas that support the Snoezelen concept. It represents the multifunctional Snoezelen room in terms of its equipment and space needs. (original abstract)
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Content available remote Major salivary gland tumors in children - diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties
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EN
Major salivary gland tumors are very rare in the developmental period. Confirming tumor changes of the salivary gland requires precise diagnostic imaging involving an ultrasonography scan, computed tomography and magnetic resonance. A needle aspiration biopsy (NAB) of a tumor is of high importance. Excision of the tumor is the main treatment method in the case of parotid gland tumors. Statistical data concerning tumors suggest choosing less invasive methods, which seems very logical in children. The operational methods used in the tumor treatment are: extracapsular excision of a tumor, partial parotidectomy, total parotidectomy, sometimes proceeded with lymphatic nodes operations. Extracapsular excision of a tumor is a noninvasive method chosen because of simplicity and lesser risk of serious complications. This method is reserved only for the cases of benign tumors of the gland. Most authors, however, consider a partial parotidectomy as a method of choice in benign tumor cases and a total parotidectomy in cases of carcinomas of the parotid gland. Submandibular gland tumors need total gland excision. The clinical cases presented in this paper show the difficulties in diagnosis and treatment choices in cases of major salivary gland tumors in children.
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Content available remote Terapia zabawą ( ludoterapia)
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W artykule poruszona jest tematyka zabawy i jej terapeutyczny wpływ na rozwój dziecka niepełnosprawnego. Zabawa w rozmaitych formach przewija się przez życie dziecka, stanowiąc dla niego główną formę poznawania rzeczywistości. Ważną rolę w terapii zabawą pełnią odpowiednie zabawki, dobrane do wieku, możliwości i zainteresowań dziecka. Umożliwiają one kontakt z otoczeniem i pomagają przezwyciężyć wszelkie trudności. Dla dziecka niepełnosprawnego zabawa jest często związana z wysiłkiem. (abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
This article focuses on play and its therapeutic effects on the development of children affected by disability. Play in its various forms is permanently present in the life of a child as the major cognitive form. Appropriate toys adjusted to the age, abilities and interests of the child perform an important role in play therapy. They enable the child to interact with their environment and help them to overcome their difficulties. Play often involves effort in case of children with disabilities. (original abstract)
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Content available remote Predictive values of metabolic syndrome in children
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Metabolic syndrome is a clinical term encompassing risk factors (obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension), which yield an increased risk for the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular disorders in adolescence. Two sets of criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome were applied, the criteria for adults, specifically adapted for children, and the criteria defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). A reliability analysis was conducted; sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of applying certain criteria of both definitions of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome in adolescents was diagnosed much more frequently using the specific criteria (41%) in comparison to the IDF criteria (22%). Using the specific criteria for children and adolescents, it was established that the HDL cholesterol was the most specific and had the largest PPV. Using the IDF criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome, the reliability analysis established that the highest PPV was recorded with the elevated level of triglycerides. The specific criteria have been found to be more efficient in diagnosing metabolic syndrome in adolescents. The highest predictive value was displayed by dyslipidemic disorders, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo HDL cholesterolemia.
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Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors form an uncommon subcategory of stromal tumors of the intestinal tract although their histologic appearance is similar to other gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Our aim was to evaluate our experience in the diagnosis and therapy of these kinds of tumors. Two patients were admitted to the Pediatric Surgery Clinic in Niš with abdominal pain and a palpable mass in the abdomen. After excision, the tumor tissue was sampled, sent for histopathological diagnosis, and examined by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Postoperatively, both patients recovered without complications. The patient with the tumor bulk in the mesentery of the small bowel had no evidence of tumor progression 6 years after surgery. In the second case, a giant tumor was present along the greater curvature of gaster. Even with a tumor of this size, there were no signs of progression 10 years after surgery. Radical surgical resection of gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors seems to be the curative approach to date, and long-term survival is possible even with large tumors.
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Content available remote Barwa w architekturze dla dzieci jako element kształtowania przyjaznych wnętrz
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Celem opracowania jest zwrócenie uwagi na zróżnicowane procesy percepcji koloru, ich analiza oraz propozycja rozwiązań projektowych z zakresu architektury wnętrz dedykowanych dzieciom. Barwa jako jedna ze składowych architektury ma istotny wpływ na kształtowanie przyjaznych przestrzeni dziecka. Kolor spełnia różne funkcje w przestrzeni architektonicznej (kolor funkcjonalny), podstawowe to: wyodrębnienia, kamuflażu, informacyjne, symboliczne. (abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
An aim of the study is to draw attention to the varied processes of colour perception, their analysis and the proposal of interior design solutions dedicated to children. Colour as one of the components of architecture has a significant impact on shaping the child's friendly spaces. Colour meets different functions in the architectural space (functional colour), the basic ones are: distinction, camouflage, informational, symbolic. (original abstract)
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