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We examined seasonal borne range size and habitat use by sexes of moose Alces dices (Linnaeus, 1758) near the southern edge of this species' geographic range. Home range size did not differ between males and females during any season. The distribution of forage partly explained seasonal habitat use by both sexes. However, sites occupied by males in summer (1 Juno - 15 September) and autumn (16 September - 31 December) were at higher elevations, had steeper slopes, and were farther from potential aquatic feeding sites than sites used by females. We suggest that habitat segregation during these seasons was a consequence of differential resource requirements, not active avoidance by either sex. During summer, females occupied lowland sites near forest cuts, presumably because these sites had abundant forage and dense understory cover that concealed their young from predators. Additionally, females utilized roadside salt licks more often than males during summer and autumn. Males occupied upland hardwood stands during summer in an apparent effort to avoid heat stress and maximize forage intake. Habitat characteristics of both sexes were similar during winter when resource needs were probably equivalent, and the quality and distribution of forage were more homogenous.
The main branches of the middle cerebral artery were defined in 16 cerebral hemispheres. It was observed that in 14 (87.5%) hemispheres, the main trunk of the middle cerebral artery bifurcated into two common branches which, in turn, branched further into cortical branches.
The use of habitats by one female moose Alces alces (Linnaeus, 1758) in a managed forest area was studied in 1993-1994. The home range area for the whole year 1993 was 4154 ha (the 90% minimum convex polygon). The area used during January-April in the first winter was 1888 ha (71% of the summer range in May-August). The core area (50% adaptive kernel) was 408 ha (9.8% of home range) in 1993. Forested peatlands were relatively intensively used by the moose. The old and middle-aged forests were used heavily up until the autumn. In the second winter with thicker snow cover the home range was smaller and the use of available habitats more uniform. The characteristics of stands used in the core area did not differ significantly from the average for the whole area. The availability of food was relatively high even in the old-forest habitats due to the forest edges rich in saplings, particularly in the vicinity of peatland. The moose fed mainly on highly available birch and used more Scots pine in the second winter. The availability of palatable saplings, dwarf shrubs and herbaceous plants appear to have seasonal importance in habitat selection. The tops of recently felled trees were utilized for periods lasting for several days. By combining the basic ecological elements, dynamic factors and effects of browsing, the habitat analyses could probably be useful for management planning in moose areas.
Foraging habits of two hand-reared moose Alces alces (Linnaeus, 1758) calves were observed from 22 June to 20 July, 1990. The animals foraged freely while wandering in the Białowieża National Park, Poland. The intensity of foraging was measured by counting the contacts (i.e. bites followed by swallowing of a plant part). Altogether, 4,408 contacts with plants of 42 species were recorded. During the month of observations the number of contacts and the number of species of plants eaten by moose did not increase significantly. There was a positive correlation between the number of contacts and the number of species of plants eaten by moose during a day. Some random choice of forage by the calves, statistically significant (but decreasing with time) quantitative differences in the food preferences between the two moose, behavioural data about strong bonds between moose calves and their mother, and comparison with the development of foraging habits in roe deer fawns formed a basis for the hypothesis that the mimicring of the mother's behaviour is an important mechanism in the development of foraging habits in moose calves.
The winter biomass of browse for moose was estimated in the fresh pine forest, the moist coniferous forest and the alder wood in the Biebrza Valley (NE Poland). Fifteen species of trees and shrubs were available to moose in the forest site-types examined. Ten of them were identified to be important: six in each forest association. On the basis of their biomass, Betula pubescens, B. pendula and Frangula alnus were the most important food plants in coniferous forests and Sorbus aucuparia in the alder wood. The highest supply of browse was found in the timber stand of the moist coniferous forest (27.42 kg dry wt/ha) and the alder wood (25.97 kg dry wt/ha). The lowest supply of 5.43 kg dry wt/ha was available in the fresh pine forest. Browse was least abundant in the pole-sized stands of both fresh pine (0.78 kg dry wt/ha) and the moist coniferous forest 0.87 kg dry wt/ha).
W serii artykułów poświęconych historii gospodarczej Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodów autorka zajmuje się opisem pożytków pochodzących od zwierząt łownych wykorzystywanych w gospodarstwie domowym do sporządzania leków i kosmetyków, a także przedstawia ich zastosowanie gospodarcze. Źródłem są staropolskie poradniki medyczne, zielniki i inne oryginalne dzieła historyczne, które zawierają wzmianki o zwierzętach i ich wykorzystaniu w Polsce od XVI do końca XIX wieku.
In a series of articles on the economic history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the author deals with benefits and products from the game applied in the household for preparation of medicines and cosmetics as well as their economic use. The literature includes Old Polish medical how-to books, herbals, and other historical references, which mention game and the use of game products between 16th and 18th centuries.
Ashworthius sidemi, a nematode belonging to the family of Trichostrongylidae, is a primary parasite of the Asian deer, mainly sika deer (Cervus nippon), with which it was introduced to Ukraine, as well as Slovakia, the Czech Republic and France. Migrating red deer carried this parasite from neighboring countries to Polish territory. Until now, in Poland, this parasite has been recorded in European bison, red deer, roe deer and fallow deer. As a result of post-mortem examinations of 10 elk, 2 of them from the Augustów Forest and Biebrza Marshes, A. sidemi were found in abomasa for the first time in Poland. The intensity of the invasions was 120 and 7 specimens, respectively. This finding of Ashworthius sidemi in elk indicates a further expansion of the focus of ashworthiosis in BiaŁowieża towards the north into the Biebrza Marshes and the Augustowska Forest. The growth of the elk population and their tendency for long distance migrations can contribute to the spread of the parasitosis in much greater distances than deer. On the basis of our own research and data from the literature, the current spread of ashworthiosis in Poland is discussed.
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