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EN
The term homonymous hemianopia refers to visual impairment due to a post-chiasmatic brain lesion. Mammalian neurons of the central nervous system do not have the ability to regenerate. However, the cerebral cortex shows plasticity in certain cases. Motor or speech disorders due to frontal lobe brain damage can be improved with well-directed rehabilitation techniques. If such plasticity is possible, it raises the question whether specialized training could improve a cortical visual disorder. There is need for simple visual training which could be used in rehabilitation. A few different approaches have been developed to treat patients with hemianopia: (1) substitution including special devices, such as optical prisms; compensation using intact residual abilities - especially training of eye movements; (3) restitution which is based on stimulating the blind hemifield. The third method of rehabilitation is the most controversial; however, it has the largest potential. To support concepts of the targeted rehabilitation outlined here, first: further development of the theory of plasticity in visual pathways is required and second: the efficacy of the rehabilitation procedures has to be demonstrated by clinical evidence. We review methods and approaches of hemianopia rehabilitation and treatment. We also review results of contemporary clinical studies and meta-studies.
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Content available Simulation of laboratory tests of steel arch support
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EN
The total load-bearing capacity of steel arch yielding roadways supports is among their most important characteristics. These values can be obtained in two ways: experimental measurements in a specialized laboratory or computer modelling by FEM. Experimental measurements are significantly more expensive and more time-consuming. However, for proper tuning, a computer model is very valuable and can provide the necessary verification by experiment. In the cooperating workplaces of GIG Katowice, VSB-Technical University of Ostrava and the Institute of Geonics ASCR this verification was successful. The present article discusses the conditions and results of this verification for static problems. The output is a tuned computer model, which may be used for other calculations to obtain the load-bearing capacity of other types of steel arch supports. Changes in other parameters such as the material properties of steel, size torques, friction coefficient values etc. can be determined relatively quickly by changing the properties of the investigated steel arch supports.
PL
Najważniejszymi parametrami wytrzymałościowymi stalowych, podatnych odrzwi obudowy wyrobisk korytarzowych jest ich maksymalna i robocza nośność. Wartości tych nośności mogą być określane dwoma sposobami: doświadczalnie, w specjalistycznym laboratorium badawczym lub za pomocą modelowania komputerowego metodą elementów skończonych (MES). Badania laboratoryjne odrzwi są drogie i czasochłonne, jednak dla kalibracji i weryfikacji modelu numerycznego wyniki tych badań są niezbędne. Weryfikację tą, zakończoną sukcesem, przeprowadzono we współpracy Głównego Instytutu Górnictwa w Katowicach, Technicznego Uniwersytetu VSB w Ostrawie oraz Instytutu Geoniki ASCR w Ostrawie. Niniejszy artykuł przedstawia przebieg procesu kalibracji modelu numerycznego odrzwi w warunkach obciążeń statycznych. W efekcie tych działań uzyskano model komputerowy odrzwi odwzorowujący ich pracę w stanowisku badawczym. Opracowany model może być wykorzystywany do obliczania nośności innych typów odrzwi. Zmiany parametrów odrzwi wpływających na ich nośność, takich jak własności mechaniczne stali, wielkość momentu dokręcenia nakrętek śrub strzemion, współczynnik tarcia itp. Mogą być zmieniane w modelu stosunkowo szybko.
EN
The loading capacity and ability of steel arch supports to accept deformations from the surrounding rock mass is influenced significantly by the function of the connections and in particular, the tightening of the bolts. This contribution deals with computer modelling of the yielding bolt connections for different torques to determine the load-bearing capacity of the connections. Another parameter that affects the loading capacity significantly is the value of the friction coefficient of the contacts between the elements of the joints. The authors investigated both the behaviour and conditions of the individual parts for three values of tightening moment and the relation between the value of screw tightening and load-bearing capacity of the connections for different friction coefficients. ANSYS software and the finite element method were used for the computer modelling. The solution is nonlinear because of the bi-linear material properties of steel and the large deformations. The geometry of the computer model was created from designs of all four parts of the structure. The calculation also defines the weakest part of the joint’s structure based on stress analysis. The load was divided into two loading steps: the pre-tensioning of connecting bolts and the deformation loading corresponding to 50-mm slip of one support. The full Newton-Raphson method was chosen for the solution. The calculations were carried out on a computer at the Supercomputing Centre VSB-Technical University of Ostrava.
PL
Nośność stalowych podpór łukowych i ich zdolność do przenoszenia odkształceń spowodowanych przez sąsiadujące warstwy skalne w dużej mierze uwarunkowana jest przez działanie połączeń, w szczególności przez siłę dokręcenia śrub. Praca niniejsza zajmuje się modelowaniem komputerowym podatnych połączeń śrubowych dla różnych momentów skręcających w celu określenia wielkości obciążeń przenoszonych przez połączenia. Innym parametrem w znacznym stopniu warunkującym nośność jest wartość współczynnika tarcia na połączeniach pomiędzy komponentami złączy. Autorzy zbadali zachowanie i warunki pracy poszczególnych elementów dla trzech wartości momentu dokręcającego, a także zbadali związek pomiędzy stopniem dokręcenia śruby a nośnością całego połączenia dla różnych wartości współczynnika tarcia. W modelowaniu komputerowym wykorzystano oprogramowanie ANSYS oraz metodę elementów skończonych. Rozwiązanie problemu jest nieliniowe ze względu na bi-liniowe właściwości materiałowe stali i z uwagi na wielkość odkształceń. Geometrię modelu komputerowego stworzono na podstawie projektów wszystkich czterech elementów konstrukcji. Obliczenia pozwalają także na zidentyfikowanie najsłabszego elementu w połączeniu w oparciu o analizę wytrzymałościową. Obciążenie przykładane podzielono na dwa etapy: wstępne naprężenie śrub i obciążenie odkształcające odpowiadające 50-mm przesunięciu jednej z podpór. W rozwiązaniu wykorzystano pełną metodę Newtona-Raphsona. Obliczenia przeprowadzono na komputerze w centrum obliczeniowym Supercomputing Centre na Uniwersytecie Technicznym w Ostravie.
EN
This paper analyses the performance of Differential Head-Related Transfer Function (DHRTF), an alternative transfer function for headphone-based virtual sound source positioning within a horizontal plane. This experimental one-channel function is used to reduce processing and avoid timbre affection while preserving signal features important for sound localisation. The use of positioning algorithm employing the DHRTF is compared to two other common positioning methods: amplitude panning and HRTF processing. Results of theoretical comparison and quality assessment of the methods by subjective listening tests are presented. The tests focus on distinctive aspects of the positioning methods: spatial impression, timbre affection, and loudness fluctuations. The results show that the DHRTF positioning method is applicable with very promising performance; it avoids perceptible channel coloration that occurs within the HRTF method, and it delivers spatial impression more successfully than the simple amplitude panning method.
EN
Effects of a high terbuthylazine concentration (3.3 mg/l) on Cyprinus carpio were studied using a commercial herbicide formulation Click 500 SC (terbuthylazine 500 g/l). The fish were exposed to the pesticide for 24 h and allowed to recover for 6 days. Biometric parameters, plasma biochemical parameters and biomarkers of oxidative stress as well as histopathological changes in selected tissues were assessed on day 1 and 7. After a 24-h exposure, there were significant alterations found in the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) as well as in the plasma concentrations of glucose, natrium, chlorides, calcium and phosphorus. Hepatosomatic index, plasma albumin and lactate reflected the treatment with a delay. Ion levels and ALT were found to be restored after a 6-day recovery period, which was too short for AST activity and glucose to diminish to the control levels. The histopathological examination revealed disorders in the gills of the exposed fish, however, the changes were not detected after a 6-day recovery period. The study shows high regeneration potential of the fish.
EN
The aim of the study was to compare the acute toxicity of diclofenac to juvenile and embryonic stages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Acute toxicity tests were performed on the aquarium fish Danio rerio, which is one of the model organisms most commonly used in toxicity testing. The tests were performed using a semi-static method according to OECD guideline No. 203 (Fish, acute toxicity test). Embryo toxicity tests were performed in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) in compliance with OECD No. 212 methodology (Fish, short-term toxicity test on embryo and sac-fry stages). The results were subjected to a probit analysis using the EKO-TOX 5.2 programme to determine 96hLC50 and 144hLC50 (median lethal concentration, 50% mortality after a 96 h or 144 h interval, respectively) values of diclofenac. The statistical significance of the difference between LC50 values in juvenile and embryonic stages of Danio rerio was tested using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test implemented in the Unistat 5.1 programme. The LC50 mean value of diclofenac was 166.6 ± 9.8 mg/L in juvenile Danio rerio, and 6.11 ± 2.48 mg/L in embryonic stages of Danio rerio. The study demonstrated a statistically higher sensitivity to diclofenac (P<0.05) in embryonic stages compared to the juvenile fish.
EN
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of subchronic exposure to atrazine on fish growth and the development of histopathological changes in selected organs (gill, kidney, liver) in Danio rerio. Juvenile growth tests were performed on D. rerio according to OECD method No. 215. For 28 days, fish at an initial age of 30 days were exposed to the environmental atrazine concentration commonly detected in Czech rivers (0.3 μg/L) and a range of sublethal concentrations of atrazine (3.0, 30.0 and 90.0 μg/L). The results showed decreasing growth rates and morphological changes in the liver (dystrophic lesions of hepatocytes) at 90.0 μg/L of atrazine. The environmental concentration of atrazine in Czech rivers did not have any effect on fish growth and development of histopathological changes in D. rerio. The value of NOEC was 30.0 μg/L and the value of LOEC was 90.0 μg/L.
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